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ʿĀmirids

(152 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
, the descendants (and clients of al-Manṣūr b. Abī ʿAmir [ q.v.], in the first place his sons ʿAbd al-Malik and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān [ qq.v.]. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Manṣūr, a son of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, founded the dynasty of the ʿĀmirids in Valencia, where he ruled 412-53/1021-61. He was succeeded by his son ʿAbd al-Malik al-Muẓaffar [ q.v.], 453-7/1061-5. After a ten years’ interval under al-Maʾmūn of Toledo, ʿAbd al-Malik’s brother, Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, ¶ ruled in Valencia 468-78/1075-85. In this last year the city was wrested from Abū Bakr’s son, the ḳāḍī

Ibn Faraḥ al-Is̲h̲bīlī

(536 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
, whose full name was S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Faraḥ b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Is̲h̲bīlī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī , born in 625/1228 at Seville (Is̲h̲bīliya [ q.v.]), was taken prisoner in 646/1248 by the Franks (al-Ifrand̲j̲), i.e., the Spaniards under Ferdinand III the Saint, of Castile (1217-52), at the conquest of Seville, but escaped and afterwards went, between 650 and 660/1252-62, to Egypt; after hearing the most celebrated teachers of Cairo, he studied under those of Damascus, where he settled and gave lectures …

al-Mudawwar

(82 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
(a.) “that which is round”, has given, under the form almodovar , the name to a small river of the province of Cadiz which flows from the south-east into the Laguna de la Janda, and also to several places in Spain and Portugal: Almodovar del Rio, below Cordova; Almodovar del Campo (or de Calatrava), to the south-west of Ciudad Real; Almodovar del Pinar, in the province of Cunenca; and Almodovar to the west of Mértola in southern Portugal. (C.F. Seybold)

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(171 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. Mūsā b. Nuṣair, a governor. When his father, the famous conqueror of Spain, left this country in the year 95 (713), he remained behind as governor and married the widow of the Gothic king Roderick, named by the Arabs Eyilo, Ailo (Egilona), or Umm ʿĀṣim after her son. According to al-Wāḳidī and other Arabian chroniclers, it was the arrogance of this woman which caused the Arab troops to murder him in the year 97 (715) in the monastery of Santa Rufina near Seville, to day known as the Convento Cap…

Aben, Abn, Aven

(81 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, pronunciation of the Spanish Arabs for ibn, “son“. Hence: Avicen(n)a = Ibn Sīnā; Averroes = Ibn Rus̲h̲d; Avempace = Ibn Bād̲j̲d̲j̲a; Aben Pascualis = Ibn Bas̲h̲kuwāl; often also by the Spanish-Arabic Jews, as Avencebrol, Avicebron = Ibn Gabirol; Abendana; Abenatar; [see also abencerages]. — The classical form ibn also occurs though rarely; comp. Pedro de Alcalá, s. v. hi jo = ibn and Anales Toledanos, ii: Ibnabiámer, a surname of Almanzor [comp. kunya]. (C. F. Seybold)

al-Andalus

(3,035 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, Arabic name of the Iberian Peninsula. The name first appears amongst the Arabs, but its origin is still somewhat obscure just as that of the older ‘Iberia’ of the Greeks and ‘Hispania’ of the Romans: for the etymological explanation as a patronymic, adduced by some Arabic writers, — ʿAndalus (son of Tubal), son of Japheth — deserves of course no serious consideration. It seems to be most natural however to connect it somehow with the German tribe of the Vandals, and thus to derive it from a hy…

Alguacil

(101 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, Alguazil, Alguazir, Aguazil, Aguazil, Alvazil, Alvazir etc., from Arabic al-wezīr, was originally used in Spain to denote a minister of state, the Prime Minister being called ḥad̲j̲ib (chamberlain; e. g. al-Manṣūr, ḥād̲j̲ib of the Umaiyads al-Ḥakam II and His̲h̲ām II). It was further applied to a governor of a city, and to the chief or even to the usher of a court, in which sense it is still in use in modern Spanish: see Dozy and Engelmann, Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais (2nd ed.) p. 129-130; Gayangos, History i. XXVIII et seq., 102, 397. (C. F. Seybold).

Aljamia

(575 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
and Aljamiado are the Spanish designations for “Spanish, written in Arabic characters”. The word is derived from the Arabic al-ʿad̲j̲amīya, which primarily denotes any foreign, non-Arabic language; so in the East, especially Persian; in Syria and the whole of North Africa, the “lingua franca”, which consists chiefly of Romance and some Arabic elements; in the Iberian peninsula, the native, Romance dialects (in ¶ opposition to the Arabic, al-ʿarabīya) especially, the Castilian, the Aragonian and the Valencian: el romance castillano, aragonés, valenciano (rarely named rūmī, i. e…

Wādī Yāna or Āna

(196 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
, or Nahr Yāna/Āna , the classical Anas, Span. Guadiana, Port. Odiana, a great river of the south-central and southwestern parts of the Iberian peninsula. It rises in the southeastern part of the central Meseta, in the Serranía de Cuenca [see Ḳūnka ], as the Záncara and Gigüela rivers, and flows westwards and then southwards to the Adantic, with a course of 578 km/360 miles. Its last part, below Pomarâo, forms part of the modern boundary between Spain and Portugal; only this section, and a little further upstream t…

Alarcos

(133 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
(by its fnll name Nuestea Señora or Santa María de Alarcos) is the name of a holy shrine (santuario, ermita) onelegua(6.687 kilometre) west of Ciudad Real. It is situated on a hill, formerly the site of the ancient town called al-Ark and al-Arkuh in Arabic, which was destroyed by the Almohades after the great victory which under Yaʿḳūb they gained here over Alphonse VIII of Castile. On historical maps the situation of al-Ark is always erroneously displaced towards the south, down into the Sierra Morena. I…

Almunécar

(43 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, Arabic al-Munakkab, a little town in Spain to the south of Granada on the Mediterranean, is known through the landing of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I (756) with 1000 Berber horse-men; in 1489 it surrendered to the Catholic kings. (C. F. Seybold)

Badajoz

(479 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, at the present day, the fortified capital of the province, the largest in Spain of the same name, the southern half of Spanish Estremadura, on the left shore of the Guadiana before its bend to the South on the Portuguese border (31,000 inhabitants). The identification of the town with and the derivation of the name from Pax (Julia) Augusta or Colonia Pacensis is without foundation and has arisen from an error of local patriotism as the latter certainly is Beja in Portugal (Arab. Bād̲j̲a = Bēd̲…

Ḏh̲u ’l-Nūn

(291 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C F.
The Bānū Ḏh̲i ’l-Nūn were an influential Berber family of the Huwāra tribe, who migrated into Spain at quite an early period where, during the rebellions against Muḥammad I. (238—273 = 852—886) and ʿAbdallāh (275—300 = 888—912) Amīrs of Córdoba, they played a part as leaders of a robber band of rebels, northeast of Toledo in S̲h̲antaberīya (Santaver on the Guadiela), Webd̲h̲a (Huete) and Uḳlīs̲h̲ (Uclés). After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba in the first quarter of the xith century the first independent king of Toledo of the new dynasty, Yaʿīs̲h̲ b. Muḥammad b. Yaʿīs̲…

His̲h̲ām III

(119 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, al-Muʿtadd, son of the incapable, ephemeral Caliph ʿAbd al-Raḥmān IV al-Murtaḍā (408 = 1018) great great-grandson of the great ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III (912—961), was the sixteenth and last feeble Umaiyad of Cordova, who could not prevent the breaking up of the great. caliphate into smaller and smaller local kingdoms (Span. Reyes de Taifas, arab. Mulūk al-Ṭawāʾif) which had been going on since the beginning of the xith century: 418—422 = 1027—1031 (died 1036). (C. F. Seybold) Bibliography Dozy, Histoire des Musulmans d’Espagne, iii. 131 sq., 177 sqq., iv. 18 sqq. Aug. Müller, Der Islam etc.,…

Alhama

(106 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
(from Arabic al-Ḥamma and al-Ḥāmma, “the hot bath”) is the name of various places and of a few streams in Spain, the best known being (1) Alhama, south-west of Granada at the northern foot of the Sierra de Alhama and on the Rio Alhama; in 1482 it was surprised and taken by Ferdinand the Catholic of Aragon, the prelude to the conquest of Granada 1492, cf. the well-known popular ballad); on December 25th 1884 it was almost completely destroyed by an earthquake. (2) Alhama on the upper Jalón, south-west of Saragossa, the ancient Aquae Bilbilitanae. (3) Alhama between Murcia and Lorca. (C. F. Seybo…

al-Ḍabbī

(311 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā b. Aḥmad b. ʿAmīra (not al-Ḳurṭubī), a Spanish Arab scholar of the vith (xiith) century, was born at Vélez (Rubio, Blanco) west of Lorca, as appears practically certain from references to himself and his family in his work, and began his studies in the latter town when not yet 10 years of age: except for his journeys to North Africa — Sebta (Ceuta), Marrākus̲h̲, Bid̲j̲āya (Bougie), and Alexandria — he seems to have spent most of his life in Mursiya (Murcia) and to have died at the end…

Ḥammūdids

(466 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
The Ḥammūdids are the successors of the two sons of the descendant of the Prophet Ḥammūd b. Maimūn b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. ʿUbaid ʿAllāh b. ʿOmar b. Idrīs b.ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, who are connected with the Idrīsids of Morocco (172—375 = 788—985) through Idrls b. ʿAbd Allāh [q. v.] founder of the dynasty. In the confusion of the civil war that preceded the fall of the Umaiyads ¶ of Cordova, the elder brother, al-Ḳāsim, obtained the governorship of Algeciras [q. v.] and his ambitious younger brother ʿAlī that of Tangier and Ceuta. After conquering Mal…

Elvira

(512 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, from the Arabic Ilbīra (rarely Lebīra and Yelbīra; this should be read in Yāḳūt, i. 348 with Fleischer, v. 40 instead of Belbīra) from old Iberian Il (l) ĭbēri, Ilĭberri, also Elibēri, Elberri etc. = New Town: ili town berri new (Municipium Florentinum Iliberritanum of the Romans) was in the later period of the Arab conquest and under the Umaiyads the name of the province afterwards called Granada, whose Arab capital was at that time Ḳasṭīliya or Medīnat Ilbīra, only incorrectly called Ilbīra alone, and lay 1¼ miles N. W. of Granada, N. of the Genil between the modern Atarf (Arab. al-Ṭarf) and…

Calatrava

(563 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, Arab. Ḳalʿat Rabāḥ, “Rabāḥ’s citadel”, called after the tābiʿ and dâk̲h̲il ʿAlī b. Rabāḥ al-Lak̲h̲mī (cf. Calatayud (Bilbilis) = Ḳalʿat Aiyūb from the tābiʿ and dāk̲h̲il Aiyūb b. Ḥabīb al-Lak̲h̲mī) was an important bulwark of Arab power (perhaps built on Roman or Iberian ruins?) north-east of the modern Ciudad. Real on the left bank of the upper G u ad i an a just below the union of the three rivers which form it, the Záncara-Gigüela, Guadiana Alto and Bajo-Azuer, one league north of the modern Carrion de Calatrava. Th…

Guadix

(476 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, the capital of a district in the Spanish province of Granada on the northern slopes of the Sierra Nevada ( Ḏj̲ebel S̲h̲ulair = Solorius Mons, Ḏj̲ebel al-T̲h̲ald̲j̲ = “snowmountain” like Hermon), the ancient Iberian Ācci (Colonia Julia Gemella, which was however 7 miles N. W. [Baedeker wrongly S. E.] of the modern Guadix and is distinguished as Guadix al Viejo), one of the oldest bishoprics in Spain ( Sedes Accitana), with 13,000 inhabitants, on the left bank of the stream of the same name which rises to the south (Rio de Guadix), with a Moorish castle (Alcazaba), in Arabic called Wādiās̲h̲, m…
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