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Palmus

(84 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Roman measure of length ('palm'; cf. the Greek palaistḗ) of 4 digiti, corresponding to 1/4 foot and a length of c. 74 mm (cf. Vitr. De arch. 3,1,8: "relinquitur pes quattuor palmorum, palmus autem habet quattuor digitos."). Like digitus ('finger width') and pes ('foot') this unit of length is based on the proportions of the human body. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 74f. 2 H. Nissen, Griechische und römische Metrologie (Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 1), 21892, 842f.

Hin

(129 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Egyptian hollow measure for fluids and dry materials of 1/10 ḥqt ( hekat) in the Old Kingdom or 1/40 jpt ( oipe) in the New Kingdom, corresponding to c. 0.48 l [3. 1201], with minimal differences upwards [1. 1644] and downwards [2. 1152]. The hin is the only remaining unit from the Demotic period, corroborated by extant measuring vessels. Its relations to the  artabe and  choinix are contentious [3. 1210]. Measuring vessels based on the hin have also been handed down from the New Kingdom: mḥt = 1 hin, pg = 1/4 hin, mnḏqt = 50 hin, which seem, however, not to have h…

Modius

(595 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
Roman surname. [German version] [1] M., Q. Horse breeder Cited by Varro (Rust. 2,7,1) as a distinguished horse breeder. His (probably invented) cognomen Equicolus, which indicates this activity, may have been interpreted by Varro as Aequicolus, so that a later period reveals a Septimus M. as the first king of the Aequiculi (Lib. de praenominibus 1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] M. Fabidius Founder of the city of Cures Son of a virgin of the Aborigines who comes to dance in the sanctuary of Quirinus in the territory of Reate, but is then seized…

Hemina

(166 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] ( emina). Latin term adopted from the Greek (ἡμίνα; hēmína) for a measure of volume for liquids and dry goods in the volume of 1/96  amphora, 1/32  modius, 1/2  sextarius, corresponding to 2  quartarii, 4  acetabula, 6  cyathi. It corresponds to 0.273 l; calibrated in relation to water, there are 10 ounces to 1 hemina. Widespread as a measurement for drinks - comparable with ‘half a pint’ in comedy and in other writers [1. 2602-2604] as well as a quantity indicator in recipes in Caelius Apicius [2. 99-100; 3. 143]. As an oil measure, hemina describes by the name λιτραῖ…

Konche

(81 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (κόγχη; kónchē; Lat. concha; ‘mussel, small bowl’); technical term for a minimum measure, used mostly by doctors to specify a quantity of ointment. In this system, the ‘large konche’ (μεγάλη κόγχη/ megálē konche) is equivalent to an oxybaphon and corresponds to c. 0.06 l, the ‘small konche’ (ἐλάττων κόγχη, eláttōn konche) equivalent to 1/2 cyathus [2] and corresponds to c. 0.02 l [1. 636]. Measures of volume Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882.

Multiplum

(382 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Technical term used in ancient numismatics to describe multiples of a particular denomination or of a larger format minting from precious or non-precious metals. Frequently multiplum is used erroneously as a synonym for the term 'medallion'; the latter, however, excludes any function as a means of payment, whereas multipla are a fundamental part by weight of the current coin system. In the Greek sphere, the oktadrachmon and the dekadrachmon can be spoken of as multipla, as their minting can as a rule be seen in connection with particular events. In Rome we encounter the b…

Kotyle

(109 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] [1] see Gefäße, Gefäßformen/-typen see Skyphos Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) [German version] [2] Dry measure (κοτύλη/ kotýlē; Latin cotula, cotyla). Graeco-Latin name for a measure of volume for liquids equalling 1/144 metretes or 1/12 chous [1], the equivalent of 4 oxybapha or 6 kyathoi. Also the name for a dry measure of a volume of 1/192 medimnos or 1/32 hekteus . According to Hultsch, conversion is c. 0.27 l [1. 108, 703, table X], according to Viedebantt c. 0.22 l [2. 1547f.] with fairly large regional variations. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliogr…

Semuncia

(188 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Roman unit, 1/24 of a larger whole. As a weight a semuncia corresponds to half an ounce/ uncia ( “semuncia, quod dimidia pars unciae”, Varro Ling. 5,171) and hence to 1/24 of a libra [1] = 13·64 g (value indicator S or Σ), as a measure of length to 1/24 of a pes = 12·3 mm, as a unit of square measure to 1/24 of a iugerum = 105.1 m2, as a measure of time to 1/24 of an hour, as an interest rate to 1/24 of a centesima (1 % a month, 12 % a year) = 1/2 %. In the late Roman and Byzantine system of weights a semuncia corresponds to 12 scripula (value indicator  XII, IB; s cripulum ) or 3 solidi

Decumanus

(282 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] is a technical term from Roman surveying ( Limitatio), and denotes the perpendicular lines ( limites) in a rectangular surveying system; originally it was a term from cosmology, for the east-west axis as sighting line for the apparent movement of the heavens [1. 199]: counterpart of the   cardo , which as north-south axis divides the world into the hemisphere of the sunrise and that of the sunset, or diurnal and nocturnal hemispheres [2. 147]. In the practise of land-surveying the decumanus maximus was established as an axis of orientation on the basis of to…

Lupinus

(47 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Latin term for the lupin ( Lupinus albus; Lupin), which was used instead of coins in board games as a counter. As a small weight it was equal to a 1/4 scripulum , about 0.28 grammes or 1/100 of an ounce. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)

Kapetis

(56 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (καπέτις; kapétis). Persian measure of volume for dry goods; it corresponds to 1/48 of an artabe, therefore to 1 Attic choinix and c. 1.1 l [1. 479-482]. Xenophon also mentions a καπίθη/ kapíthē, which corresponded to 2 Attic choinikes (Xen. An. 1,5,6). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griech. und röm. Metrologie, 21882.

Plethron

(96 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (πλέθρον/ pléthron). A p. (Latin iugerum) is a Greek unit of length of 100 feet, corresponding to 1/6 στάδιον/ stádion (Stadion). Depending on the underlying length of the foot (Pous), it has a length of c. 27-35 m; an Attic plethron comes to 31 m. In Homeric epic, plethron is synonymous with the length of a furrow; plethron can also be found there as a unit of area for a piece of land 100 feet square (cf. also Hom. Il. 23,164: ἑκατόμπεδον ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα). Measures Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 28.

Palaiste

(115 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (παλαιστή/ palaist ). Greek unit of length (a 'hand's width', cf. Latin palmus ) of 4 δάκτυλοι ( dáktyloi), corresponding to 1/4 foot. Extrapolating from the length of the underlying measurement, the foot (πούς/ pous ), the palaiste is between 68 and 87 mm long. This unit of measure, the dáktylos ('finger's width'), the σπιθαμή ( spithamḗ /'span') and the πῆχυς ( pêchys /'cubit') draw on the proportions of the human body. According to Herodotus 1 foot corresponds to 4 hands and a cubit to 6 hands (Hdt. 2,149,3). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsc…

Passus

(113 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Roman measure of length (two paces; Greek βῆμα διπλοῦν/ bêma diploûn) of 5 feet, corresponding to c. 1.48 m. The passus formed the basic unit for measuring mileage, the Roman road surveys providing distance data on the basis of 1,000 times the passus, i.e. the mille passus (plural milia passuum, abbreviated as MP and corresponding to 1.48 km) (cf. for instance ILS 23: milestone of Polla). In military terminology, milia passuum was also used by way of asserting feats of marching (cf. for instance Veg. Mil. 1,27). Milestones Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliograp…

Pous

(195 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (πούς/ poús, 'foot', Lat. pes ). A poús is a Greek unit of length, taken from the proportions of the human body, of 4 παλαισταί ( palaistaí; p alaistḗ ; 'hand width', Lat. palmus ) or 16 δάκτυλοι ( dáktyloi; d áktylos ; 'finger width', Lat. digitus). Owing to differing regional calculations its length varied between c. 270 and 350 mm; an Attic foot was c. 300 mm. The poús is a subunit of larger units; 100 pódes correspond to a  πλέθρον ( pléthron ), 600 pódes to a  στάδιον ( st ádion ); cf. table. Greek units of length and the relationships between them     Unit of length     δάκτυλος …

Saton

(65 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (σάτον/ sáton, Latin satum; seā) is a Hebrew capacity measure for liquids and dry goods. Its volume varies in time and place between 20 and 24 loghim (Log; Hin; Sextarius) and corresponds to roughly 9.1-13.1 litres. During the Roman period the s. was equated with 1 1/2 Italic modii ( Modius [3]) (Jos. Ant. Iud. 9,85; less often 1 1/4 modii). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)

Quartarius

(62 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (Greek τέταρτον/ tétarton, 'quarter'). The quartarius was a Roman measure of volume for liquids and dry goods at 1/4 sextarius , corresponding to 2 acetabula or 3 cyathi. Standardized to water, the quartarius is equivalent to 0.136 l. Acetabulum; Cyathus Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 H. Chantraine, s. v. q., RE 24, 830-834 2 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, s. Index.

Pes

(331 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The pes ('foot') was the basic unit of Roman measures of length (corresponding to 296·2 mm). According to Vitruvius (Vitr. 3,1,5) it, its subdivisions digitus ('fingerwidth'; Greek δάκτυλος/ dáktylos = 1/16 foot) and palmus ('handwidth'; Greek παλαιστή/ palaistḗ = 1/4 foot) and its sesquimultiple cubitus ('cubit'; Greek πῆχυς/ pȇchys ) draw on the proportions of the human body. Following the duodecimal system usual in coinage, the pes was also subdivided into 12 unciae ('inches'). Numerous surviving folding foot-long rules of bronze, bone or brass ge…

Stadion

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(στάδιον; stádion). [German version] [1] Unit of length (Doric σπάδιον/ spádion). Greek unit of length equal to 6 pléthra ( pléthron ; cf. Hdt. 2,149,3) or 600 pous (foot). Depending on the underlying standard of the foot ( pous), this corresponds to a length of c. 162-210 m; the Attic stadion is equal to 186 m. The stadion for the race at Olympia had a length of 192.3 m, at Delphi 177.3 m, at Epidaurus 181.3 m, and at Athens 184.3 m. 8  stadia correspond approximately to 1 Roman mile ( mille passus) of 1500 m. In Greek literature, larger distances are generally indicated in stádia; if other…

Hekteus

(177 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (ἑκτεύς; hekteús). Greek term for a dry measure, mainly for grain, in volume 1/6   medimnos , corresponding to 8   choinikes and 32   kotylai . According to [1], the hekteus depends on the region and amounts to 8.75 litres (Attica) or 12.12 litres (Aegina) [1. 504-506]. In the Ptolemaic period the hekteus corresponded to 13.13 litres [1. 623]. According to [3], the Attic hekteus passed through the stages of 4.56, 5.84, 6.56, 8.75, 10.21, 10.94 litres, the Aeginetan-Lakonian hekteus corresponded to 9.12 litres. According to [6], the Solonian hekteus amounted to 8…
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