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Swearwords; Terms of abuse

(564 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[German version] can be defined in terms of a speech act: the deliberate disparaging of a person (or thing) by means of a verbal attack on characteristic traits, personal circumstances, and so forth. For the constitution of an insult, it is not absolutely necessary to apply an abusive term in the narrow sense as a particular lexical device, i.e. nominally hostile forms of address (or hostile terminology) [7. 18; 9. 1190]. In ancient literature, abusive language is used in the most varied genres, e.g. in iambic poetry (Iambographers), invective, epigrams, in Fescennini versus

Synonym

(199 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[German version] (Latin, from Greek συνώνυμον/ synṓnymon, 'word with the same meaning'). Ancient grammarians gave the name synonyma (or alternatively polyonyma) to two or more words with the same meaning, such as πορεύεσθαι and βαδίζειν for "go" (Aristot. Rhet. 1405a), ensis, gladius and mucro for "sword" (Prisc., GL 2, p. 59, line 18 Keil). The Sophist Prodicus endeavours to distinguish from one another the meanings particularly of apparent synonyms; ancient rhetoric also places great value on recognising fine nuances (primarily for ret…

Taboo

(173 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[German version] (linguistic taboo; term taken from Polynesian). In Latin and Greek there is no equivalent technical term; the phenomenon can be observed in ancient texts, but is not explicitly addressed. Depending on various religious, social and societal circumstances, certain words are avoided in speech, especially for two reasons: 1) in the magical or religious spheres sacred, powerful, or dangerous things are not directly mentioned (that would be sacrilege, nefas) for fear that e.g. a god or an event (esp. death, dying) may be conjured up or that an object …

Religion, Critique of

(1,343 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[English version] The transition from pagan Antiquity to the Christian era is generally regarded as a process mostly characterized by continuity, typified by the persistence and conscious adoption of cultural traditions (chrêsis) and philosophical theories (especially of Platonism). This view, which in extra-scholarly contexts has become condensed into the shibboleth of the 'Christian West', does not do justice to the reception of Antiquity as a whole [15]. For, since the Early Modern period, this…

Suppletion

(194 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[German version] (From Latin supplēre, 'to fill, supplement, complete'.) The term is used to describe the formal combination of words that are related semantically, but not etymologically. Suppletion is found a) in adjectives, when the forms used in gradation are derived from different roots, e.g. English good - better - best, Latin bonus - melior - optimus; b) in verbs, when different tense stems are found within the same paradigm, e.g. English be - is - was; Latin sum - fui; fero - tuli - latum; Greek λέγω - ἐρῶ - εἶπον (légō - erȏ - eȋpon); ὁράω - ὄψομαι - εἶδον (horáō - ópsomai - eȋdon). Within …

Suppletion

(177 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[English version] auch Suppletivismus, Suppletiv-Form (von lat. supplēre, “auffüllen, ergänzen, vervollständigen”). Als S. bezeichnet man die formale Zusammenfassung von Wörtern, die semantisch, nicht jedoch etym. zusammengehören, zu einer Gruppe. S. tritt u. a. auf a) bei Adj., wenn Steigerungsformen von verschiedenen Wz. abgeleitet sind (z. B. dt. gut - besser - best; lat. bonus - melior - optimus); b) bei Verben, wenn innerhalb eines Paradigmas die Tempusstämme wechseln (z. B. dt. sein - bin/ ist/ sind - war; lat. sum - fui; fero - tuli - latum; griech. λέγω - ἐρῶ - εἶπον;…

Tabu

(160 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[English version] (Sprachtabu; Begriff aus dem Polynesischen). Im Lat. und Griech. gibt es keinen t.t.; das Phänomen läßt sich in ant. Texten zwar beobachten, aber es wird nicht eigens thematisiert. Je nach rel., sozialen und gesellschaftlichen Gegebenheiten wird das Aussprechen bestimmter Wörter vermieden, bes. aus zwei Gründen: 1) In der magischen bzw. rel. Sphäre wird Heiliges, Mächtiges, Gefährliches nicht direkt benannt (das wäre Frevel, nefas) aus Furcht, daß z. B. ein Gott oder ein Geschehen (bes. “Tod”, “Sterben”), beschworen oder daß eine Sache ode…

Schimpfwörter

(520 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[English version] sind definierbar über den Sprechakt, d. h. die Absicht, eine Person (oder Sache) durch einen verbalen Angriff auf Eigenschaften, persönliche Umstände o.ä. herabzusetzen. Dabei ist das spezielle lexikalische Mittel des Sch. im engen Sinne, d. h. die nominale Feindanrede (bzw. Feindbezeichnung), für die Formulierung einer Beschimpfung nicht unbedingt nötig [7. 18; 9. 1190]. Innerhalb der ant. Lit. finden sich Sch. in den verschiedensten Gattungen, z. B. in Iamben (Iambographen), Invektiven, Epigrammen, auch in Fescennini versus , f…

Synonymum

(206 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[English version] (lat., von griech. συνώνυμον, “Wort mit der gleichen Bed.”). Die ant. Grammatiker nennen Synonyma (oder auch Polyonyma) zwei oder mehr Wörter, die das gleiche bedeuten, z. B. πορεύεσθαι und βαδίζειν für “gehen” (Aristot. rhet. 1405a), ensis, gladius und mucro für “Schwert” (Prisc., GL 2, p. 59, Z. 18 Keil). Der Sophist Prodikos bemüht sich, Bedeutungen von Wörtern, bes. von scheinbaren S., voneinander abzugrenzen; auch die ant. Rhet. legt großen Wert darauf, die feinen Nuancen zu kennen (v. a. zwecks Retouchierung i…

Tort

(1,662 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette | Schröder, Jan (Tübingen RWG)
Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Roman (private) tort law survived into the Early Modern Period, as Roman private law in general, as ius commune, and was only replaced by the Central European codifications of the 18th and 19th cents. It has strongly influenced modern liability law, especially in the field of culpable damnification Schröder, Jan (Tübingen RWG) [German version] B. Tortious Liability (CT) Actions for culpable injury or the damnification of persons or things in Roman law, especially the actio legis Aquiliae and the actio iniuriarum, form…