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Sohaemus

(411 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σόαιμος/ Sóaimos, Σόεμος/ Sóemos). [German version] [1] Ituraean, under Herodes [1] the Great, executed in 29 BC Ituraean (Ituraea), in a position of trust under Herodes [1] the Great, who in 30 BC gave him the duty of guarding him and, should he not return from his visit to Octavianus [1], of killing his wife Mariamme [1] and mother-in-law Alexandra. S. revealed the order to them and in 29 was executed by Herod (Jos. Ant. Iud. 15,185; 204-229). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Tetrarch of the Ituraeans, 1st cent. AD Tetrarch of the Ituraeans (Ituraea) AD 38-49,…

Samus

(159 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σάμος/ Sámos). [German version] [1] King of Armenia, 3rd cent. BC King of Armenia first half of the 3rd cent. BC, appears among the paternal ancestors of Antiochus [16] I of Commagene as the father of king Arsames [4] (OGIS 394). S. (and not his homonymous descendant) founded Samosata, later the capital of Commagene, and Samokart in the Armenian region of Arzanene. In c. 255 BC he hosted the Bithynian prince Ziaelas. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] S. Theosebes Dicaeus (Σ. Θεοσεβὴς Δίκαιος/ S. Theosebḕs Díkaios). Great-grandson of S. [1], son of Ptolemaeus [III…

Cleopatra

(4,237 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Κλεοπάτρα; Kleopátra, Lat. Cleopatra). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia Daughter of  Boreas and  Oreithyia, first wife of  Phineus. C. was rejected in favour of  Idaea [3], whom Phineus married as his second wife; her sons were blinded (Apollod. 3.200; Hyg. Fab. 18). Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Idas and Marpessa Daughter of  Idas and  Marpessa, wife of  Meleager. After her abduction by Apollo she was also called ‘Alcyone’ after her mother's lament (Hom. Il. 9.556ff.) [1; 2]. In t…

Asander

(328 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἀσάνδρος; Asándros) [German version] [1] Macedonian satrap of Lydia (334-331 BC) Son of a certain Philotas, probably related to  Parmenion, under Alexander [4] the Great the commander of the  Prodromoi and  Paeones (so in Diod. Sic. 17,17,4), in 334-331 BC satrap of  Lydia; he participated in the conquest of  Caria. In the winter of 329/28 he led troops to Alexander and then is no longer mentioned. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve, 2, no. 165 Heckel, 385. [German version] [2] Macedonian satrap of Caria (around 320 BC) Son of Agathon, after the death of  Alexander…

Cylaces

(95 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] More correctly perhaps Gylakes (Armenian Głak), Armenian eunuch and ‘head gentleman-in-waiting’ ( Hajr mardpet). After C. had temporarily changed over to the Persian side, he attempted from AD 368 onwards, together with the ‘regent’ ( hazarapet)  Artabannes [1], to protect the interests of young king  Pap and to limit the power of the higher nobility and the Church. Around 370 Sapor II induced Pap, through secret messages, to murder his ministers and to have their heads sent to him (Amm. Marc. 27,12; 30,1,3). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography J. Markwart, S…

Rothari

(118 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] The Arian (Arianism) of Harudic descent was the duke of Brixia when he succeeded Arioald as king of the Langobardi in AD 636. Under his rule, the Ligurian coast from the city of Luna [3] up to the Frankish border and Opitergium in Venetia were captured. A campaign against the exarchate of Ravenna (late 643) was stalled following a battle on the river Scultenna (Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 4,42; 45; 47). On 22 November 643, R. decreed the Edictus R. , a collection of Langobardic legal conventions. R. died in 652. PLRE, 3B, 1096. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliog…

Hengist and Horsa

(229 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (‘stallion and steed’). The brothers H. and H., sons of the Jute (Danish) Wihtgil, were said to be the leaders of Anglo-Saxon warriors recruited by the southern British king Vortigern in AD 449 to help him repel the Scots and Picts. After a few years, a conflict developed between the Britons and their Germanic allies. In the battle of Aylesford (455) Horsa is said to have died on the Germanic side, and Vortigern's son Categirn, on the British. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Hengist founded the kingdom of Kent in the same year. Hengist and his son Oisc …

Cyrrhestice

(235 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Κυρρηστική; Kyrrhēstikḗ). Region in northern Syria south of  Commagene, between the Euphrates and the  Amanus; named after its capital Cyrrhus [2]. The name is used for the first time, but perhaps anachronistically, in connection with events of the year 286 BC (Plut. Demetrius 48,6). Attested with certainty is a revolt of 6,000 Cyrrhesticans against Antiochus [5] the Great in 221 (Pol. 5,50; 57). At the time Seleucid rule was ending, local dynasts appear to also have had their say in the political affairs in C: the Cyrrhestican and (apparently disloyal) Roman socius C…

Ariobarzanes

(559 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἀριοβαρζάνης; Ariobarzánēs, Old Persian Ariyabrdana). [German version] [1] Satrap of Dascylium Vice-governor in 407 BC under  Pharnabazus, satrap of Dascylium, and perhaps his eldest son (Xen. Hell. 1,4,7) [1]; guest-friend of the Spartan  Antalcidas (Xen. Hell. 5,1,28). Succeeded Pharnabazus in 387 BC as satrap of Propontis [1]. In 368 BC A. succeeded, with the aid of his confidant  Philiscus, in assuring the support of Athens and Sparta (Xen. Hell. 7,1,27), which he in fact obtained during his revolt a…

Zariadres

(112 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ζαριάδρης/ Zariádrēs). In Chares [2] of Mytilene (FGrH 125, F 5 = Ath. 13,575), there is a love story between Z., the brother of a certain Hystaspes of Media, and the daughter of a Sarmatian prince. It exhibits strong similarities to an episode in Iranian literature. There two brothers called Guštâsp and Zarêr appear and it is Guštâsp who (under circumstances comparable to those of Chares' Z.) wins the daughter of the ruler of Rûm. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Boyce, Z. and Zarêr, in: BSO(A)S 17, 1955, 463-477 E. Yarshater, Iranian National History,…

Artabannes

(220 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] Commander serving under the Armenian king Arsaces II (mid-4th cent. AD) Commander serving under the Armenian king Arsaces II, who fled to Shapur II and was later appointed, together with  Cylaces, as the governor of Armenia. Both soon went over to the side of Arsaces' son  Pap, who first found refuge with the Romans, but was assigned to Armenia by  Valens at the request of A. and Cylaces. During a renewed Persian attack, A. and Cylaces along with Pap fled to the mountains. A. then receive…

Stratonice

(826 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Στρατονίκη; Stratoníkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Alexander [2] I, c. 500 BC Daughter of the Macedonian king Alexander [II 2] I. In the winter of 429/8 BC, she was married by her brother Perdiccas [2] II to Seuthes [1], nephew of the Odrysian king Sitalces [1], in exchange for Seuthes' having achieved the withdrawal of Thracian troops from Macedonia (Thuc. 2,101,5 f.). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Antigonus [1], 4th cent. BC Daughter of one Corrhagus, married to Antigonus [1], mother of Demetrius [2] Poliorketes and a Philippus, who died…

Nabedes

(64 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ναβέδης; Nabédēs). Military commander under Chosroes [5] I in the Persian War of Iustinianus [1]. Initially commandant of Nisibis (Procop. Pers. 2,18,9; 19; Procop. Anecdota 2,28), he defeated the Romans in AD 543 at Anglon in the region of Dvin/Persarmenia (Procop. Pers. 2,25,5-35) and in 550 undertook an invasion of Lazica (Procop. Goth. 4,9,6f.). PLRE 3, 909. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Vasaces

(111 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] In AD 62, the Parthian Vologaeses I succeeded in encircling the Roman army of Caesennius [4] Paetus near Rhandia. V.--commander of the cavalry--was sent from the Parthian side to negotiate the capitulation. In the discussion, Paetus prided himself on the Roman supremacy over Armenia which had been in existence from Licinius [I 26] Lucullus and Pompeius [I 3] , while V. emphasised the actual Parthian dominance. His part in the negotiations that followed cannot be clearly determined…

Osroes

(176 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] 1st cent. AD Parthian king Son of Vologaeses I, who fought Pacorus for the Parthian crown from AD 89/90, but did not succeed until 108/9. His meddling in Armenia (cf. Axidares; Parthamasiris) provoked Trajan's Parthian War (Parthian and Persian Wars), which O. weathered despite severe setbacks. In 117, he expelled his son Parthamaspates, who had been drawn to the Roman side and whom Trajan had made king of the Parthians. A treaty was concluded at a meeting with Hadrian in 123, and O…

Erato

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἐρατώ; Eratṓ). [German version] [1] One of the nine Muses One of the nine  Muses; daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Hes. Theog. 78; Apollod. 1,13). Attribution of a sphere of activity, as in the case of the other Muses, emerged only gradually. Plato i.a. assigns her to the sphere of the erotic, on account of her name (Phdr. 259d); but she is above all the Muse of love-lyric, and is appealed to in this connection by poets (cf. Verg. Aen. 7,37; Ov. Ars am. 2,16; 425). She is portrayed i.a. on the François Vase (570 BC) and on the Basle lekythos (together with  Thamyris and  Klio). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibl…

Pacorus

(369 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] Member of the Parthian royal house P. (not P. I!), a son of Orodes [2] II; he is central to the first phase of the  Parthian Wars which followed the battle of Carrhae. In 53 BC, P. got engaged to a sister of the Armenian king Artavasdes [2] II, sealing the latter's coming over to the Parthian side. The Parthian invasion of Syria (51-50) was only nominally under the leadership of P., who was still young.  He played a greater part in the great attack on Syria, carried out under his command from 41 onward, but after initial success he died at Gindarus in 38 BC. Parthia Schottky, Mart…

Nicomedes

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Νικομήδης; Nikomḗdēs). [German version] [1] Spartan commander, 458 or 457 BC Member of the Spartan royal family of the Agiadae, son of Cleombrotus [2], brother of Pausanias, the victor of Plataeae. In 458 or 457 BC, N. led a Spartan army as the guardian of his underage nephew Pleistoanax to support the inhabitants of the Doris region against the Phocians and on the return march defeated the Athenians near Tanagra (Thuc. 1,107,2-108,1; Diod. Sic. 11,79,4-80,6; Plut. Cimon 17,4-9; Plut. Pericles 10,1-4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] N. I of Bithynia King from 280 BC S…

Hephthalites+B71

(226 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] According to R. Göbl's classification ([1], cf. [2]),  Iran experienced four successive ‘waves’ of invading Hunnic peoples from the 4th cent. AD. While the first three groups of these ‘Iranian Huns’ (Kidarites, Alchon, Nezak) have left few traces in the literary sources, the H. in the 5th/6th cents. AD belonged to the most prominent and dangerous eastern neighbours of the Persians. They are first explicitly attested at the time of King Perozes and were vividly described by Procopius (BP 1,3). According to his report, the Ephthalitai were a Hunnic people, also kn…

Zenobia

(1,365 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ζηνοβία; Zēnobía). [German version] [1] Wife of Radamistus, 1st cent. AD The wife of the Armenian king Radamistus is the heroine of an episode in Tacitus (Ann. 12,51): when her husband was forced to flee to Iberia in AD 54, she was apparently unable to cope with the hardships of the journey due to her pregnancy and supposedly asked to be killed. Injured by her husband and thrown into the Araxes, Z. was rescued and brought to Radamistus' rival Tiridates [5] I, who treated her honourably. These events were …
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