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Strombichides

(105 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried
[English version] (Στρομβιχίδης). Sohn des Diotimos [1], att. Stratege 412/1 v. Chr. Er operierte 412 v. Chr. erfolglos gegen Teos (Thuk. 8,15,1; 8,16,1-2), belagerte mit Onomakles und Euktemon vergeblich Chios (Thuk. 8,30; 8,33,2-34; 8,38; 8,40 f.; 8,55,2-56,1; 8,61-63), von wo er im Frühjahr 411 in den Hellespont fuhr, um Athens verlorene Machtstellung dort zu retten (Eroberung von Lampsakos und Sestos, Thuk. 8,62). 411 blieb er der Demokratie treu und wirkte in der Flotte bei Samos (Thuk. 8,79)…

Schatzung

(259 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried
[English version] In vielen polit. Gemeinwesen der Ant. waren das Vollbürgerrecht, das aktive und/oder passive Wahlrecht, die Einteilung in eine Waffengattung oder die Umlage finanzieller Leistungen des Staates auf seine Bürger an die ökonomische Leistungsfähigkeit und damit indirekt an einen sozialen Status gebunden. Durch eine Sch. erfolgte die Zuweisung dieser Rechte und Pflichten. Vermögens- oder Einkommensqualifikationen als Voraussetzung für das Bürger- oder Wahlrecht wurden von der ant. pol…

Siteresion

(95 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried
[English version] (σιτηρέσιον, “Verpflegungsgeld”). Seit Mitte des 5. Jh. v. Chr. wurde in Griechenland den als Reiter, Fußsoldaten oder als Ruderer auf Kriegsschiffen dienenden Bürgern Sold für die Verpflegung ausgezahlt. Daher wurden die Begriffe μισθός/ misthós, τροφή/ trophé, σῖτος/ sítos und s. im 5. Jh. v. Chr. syn. gebraucht. Seit dem 4. Jh. v. Chr. wurde deutlicher zw. Sold und einem Beitr. zur Verpflegung (= s.) unterschieden (Xen. an. 6,2,4; Demosth. or. 4,28 f.; 50,53; Aristot. oec. 1353a 19-23). Schmitz, Winfried Bibliography 1 V. Gabrielsen, Financing t…

Tamia

(58 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried
[English version] (ταμία). In begüterten griech. Häusern verwaltete die t. die im Haus, meist in einer abschließbaren Kammer ( tamieíon ; thálamos ) gelagerten Vorräte und Wertgegenstände. Unter den Dienstleuten hatte sie einen bes. Rang und genoß das Vertrauen des Hausherrn (Hom. Od. 2,345; Pind. O. 13,7; Xen. oik. 9,10-13; 10,10; Lib. or. 16,47). Schmitz, Winfried

Tamieion

(146 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried
[English version] (ταμιεῖον, ταμεῖον). Kassen- oder Depotraum, in dem Gelder und Wertgegenstände von Tempeln, der Polis oder von Privatpersonen von einem Schatzmeister, Kassenwart, einem/einer Bediensteten des Hauses (ταμίας/ tamías, ταμία/ tamía) verwahrt wurden. Für die Athenische Symmachie (Attisch-Delischer Seebund) war das Apollonheiligtum auf Delos Kassenort (κοινὸν τ./ koinón t.) für die eingehenden Beiträge (φόροι/ phóroi; Thuk. 1,96,2; Diod. 11,47,1). In Athen war der ὀπισθόδομος/ opisthódomos der Ort, an dem die Kasse der Polis aufbewahrt wurde. T. bezeichnet…

Theramenes

(467 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried
[English version] (Θηραμένης). Bedeutender athenischer Politiker und Feldherr am E. des 5. Jh. v. Chr.; Sohn des Hagnon [1]; Lehrer des Isokrates. Th. beteiligte sich am oligarchischen Umsturz in Athen 411, war Mitglied im Rat der 400 ( tetrakósioi ) und stratēgós . Er widersetzte sich Bestrebungen, den Krieg gegen den Peloponnesischen Bund unter erheblichen Zugeständnissen zu beenden, und trug maßgeblich dazu bei, daß die von den Oligarchen errichtete Befestigung der Eetioneia, die angeblich den Spartanern die Ein…

Tamias

(751 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried
[English version] (ταμίας, Pl. ταμίαι/ tamíai). Verwalter einer Tempelkasse oder einer staatlichen Kasse. In Athen hatten die t. der Athena (τ. τῆς θεοῦ, t. tēs theú) das wichtigste Schatzamt inne. Die zehn t. wurden aus der Schatzungsklasse der pentakosiomédimnoi gelost, einer aus jeder phylḗ . Zu Beginn des Amtsjahres übernahmen die t. in Anwesenheit des Rats ( bulḗ ) das mit Gold und Elfenbein gefaßte Götterbild der Athena, die mit Silber- und Goldblechen belegten br. Nikestatuen, die Weihgeschenke und den im Opisthodom (Tempel) d…

Laches

(266 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Λάχης; Láchēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategós from a wealthy family, sent to Sicily in 427 BC with 20 warships Athenian stratēgós from a wealthy family, sent to Sicily in 427 BC with 20 warships to protect the cities allied to Leontini (Thuc. 3,86) against Syracuse, he successfully led a number of campaigns out of Rhegium against the Aeolian Islands, Mylae, Inessa and the Locrians (Thuc. 3,88; 90; 99; 103; Diod. Sic. 12,54,4f.). After his return in the winter of 426/5 (Thuc. 3,115), he was prosecuted with…

Callixenus

(112 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Καλλίξενος; Kallíxenos). Athenian, successfully pleaded in the Council in 406 BC for a sentencing of the generals because they failed to rescue shipwreck victims after the battle of the Arginusae; his request to have the generals executed when found guilty was submitted to the popular assembly. After  Euryptolemus was forced to drop a suit of unlawfulness ( Paranomon graphe), the generals were sentenced to death. Later when proceedings were initiated against the accusers, C. fled …

Tamieion

(163 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμιεῖον, tamieîon). Cash office or strong-room in which monies and objects of value belonging to temples, the polis or private individuals were kept by a bursar or treasurer, a servant of the household (ταμίας/ tamías, ταμία/ tamía). For the Athenian symmachia (Delian League), the Sanctuary of Apollo on Delos was the treasury (κοινὸν ταμιεῖον/ koinón tamieion) for incoming dues (φόροι/ phóroi; Thuc. 1,96,2; Diod. Sic. 11,47,1). In Athens, the ὀπισθόδομος/ opisthódomos was the place in which the financial resources of the polis were kept. Tamieion is also the t…

Hekatoste

(358 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἑκατοστή; hekatostḗ). In antiquity  taxes of 1% were called hekatoste: 1. There were numerous forms of hekatoste in Athens (Aristoph. Vesp. 658), like the ἑκατοστὴ ἡ ἐν Πειραιεῖ ( hekatostḗ hē en Peiraieí) mentioned in Ps.-Xen. Ath. pol. 1,17, and the port customs duty documented in IG I3 182 l.15. According to Theophrast (F 650 Fortenbaugh; Stob. 44,20 Wachsmuth-Hense) the buyer of a piece of land had to pay a 1% sales tax. Ancient and Byzantine lexica mention ‘certain hekatoste’ among the sales taxes (ἐπώνια; epṓnia) (Anecd. Bekk. I 255,1). Three fragmentary in…

Kapelos

(298 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (κάπηλος; kápēlos). The kapelos was a Greek merchant at the local market, selling various goods including foods; he also served wine, vinegar, or other beverages. The specifications added to the word kapelos (e.g. ἐλαιο-, οἰνο-, σιτο-κάπηλος; oil, wine, grain kapelos) show how diverse retail in Athens was in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Specialized kápēloi were concentrated in specific areas of the market or in specific streets. Female vendors (καπηλίς, kapēlís) are attested as well (cf. Dem. Or. 57,30ff.). The καπηλεῖον ( kapēleîon) was a permanent booth or store…

Erasinides

(160 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐρασινίδης; Erasinídēs). Athenian strategos. In 409 BC he petitioned that Thrasybulus of Calydon be honoured with a golden wreath for the killing of the oligarch Phrynichus (IG I3 102). Elected strategos in the spring of 407, in 406 E. was encircled with Conon at Mytilene, but was able to fight his way through by ship to Athens (Xen. Hell. 1,6,16-22). E. commanded a squadron at the sea-battle at the Arginusae, and subsequently urged a rapid attack on the Spartan fleet lying off Mytilene (Xen. Hell. 1,6,29-38;…

Estimation

(294 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] In many ancient political communities, the right of full citizenship, the active or passive right to vote, the assignment to certain arms of service, and the act of splitting the cost of financial services by the state between the citizens, were all contingent upon economical ability and thereby indirectly dependent upon social status. These rights and duties were assigned on the basis of an estimation. Ancient political theory regarded the requirement of meeting certain qualifica…

Eikoste

(690 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εἰκοστή; eikostḗ). Duty or tax at the rate of a twentieth (5%). 1. In Athens, the Peisistratidae presumably were the first to impose tax on agricultural yields in order to finance wars, magnificent buildings, and ceremonial sacrifices, according to Thuc. 6,54,5, at the rate of 5%. In Aristot. Ath. Pol. 16,4; 16,6, tax is called ‘tithe’ (δεκάτη), (cf. Hdt. 1,64,1). 2. In 413/2 BC, the Athenians imposed import and export tax at the rate of 5% on their symmachoi (allies) in the Delian-Athenian League instead of the   phoroi in order to cover the ris…

Eisphora

(546 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εἰσφορά; eisphorá). In Athens, the eisphora was an extra-budgetary, direct wealth-tax imposed on wealthy Athenians during financial crises, primarily during wars, by order of the public assembly. According to Aristot. Ath. Pol. 8,3, an eisphora supposedly existed already in the Solonic period. However, the wording of the law cited there mentions only a general collection of taxes through the   naukraroi . According to Thuc. 3,19,1, an eisphora was imposed in 428/7 BC for the first time (πρῶτον) in the amount of 200 talents due to the high costs of war. Since an eisphora

Strombichides

(113 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Στρομβιχίδης/ Strombichídēs). Son of Diotimus [1], Attic strategos in 412/1 BC. His operations against Teosin 412 BC were unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,15,1; 8,16,1-2) and he, Onomaclesand Euctemon besieged Chiosin vain (Thuc. 8,30; 8,33,2-34; 8,38; 8,40 f.; 8,55,2-56,1; 8,61-63). From there he went to the Hellespontus in the spring of 411 in order to salvage Athens's lost authority there (conquest of Lampsacus and Sestus, Thuc. 8,62). In 411 he remained true to democracy and was active in the …

Monopoly

(579 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] I. Greece Although the terms μονοπωλία/ monopōlía and μονοπώλιον/ monopṓlion are documented only since the late 4th cent. BC (Aristot. Pol. 1259a 21-23; Hyp. fr. 43 Jensen), monopolies existed much earlier. According to Aristotle, the poleis set up monopolies for certain goods, especially in times of financial difficulty; such measures belonged to the art of acquiring ( chrēmatistikḗ ). We know of monopolies on sales and exports: private individuals, cities or rulers controlled the trade in certain goods in order to…

Chabrias

(366 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Χαβρίας; Chabrías). Important Athenian general and mercenary leader. Taking part in  Thrasybulus' campaigns in Thrace during the Corinthian War, at the beginning of 389 BC he succeeded  Iphicrates as general in the Peloponnese. In 388 he set off for Cyprus with Athenian forces to support King Evagoras against Persia. On the way there, victory against the Spartans on Aegina (Xen. Hell. 5,1,10-13). When the King's Peace (386) made it impossible for him to remain in Cyprus, C. entere…

Siteresion

(110 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (σιτηρέσιον/ sitērésion, 'maintenance money'). In Greece from the middle of the 5th cent. BC money was paid out for maintenance to citizens serving as equestrians, foot soldiers or oarsmen on warships. Hence the terms μισθός/ misthós, τροφή/ trophḗ, σῖτος/ sîtos and siteresion were used synonymously in the 5th century BC. From the 4th cent. BC onwards a clearer distinction was made between soldiers' pay and contributions for maintenance (= siteresion) (Xen. An. 6,2,4; Dem. Or. 4,28 f.; 50,53; Aristot. Oec. 1353a 19-23). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1…
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