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(521 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Name of an originally Etruscan plebeian family (Etruscan form Velimna) that was significant in the early Republic. The Volumnii of the 1st cent. BC are not its descendants. The tomb of the V. in Perusia (modern Perugia) with bilingual inscriptions (CIL XI 1963 - CIE 3763) was used from the 2nd cent. onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] V., P. Fought in 42 BC as a friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus in the battle of Philippi, and wrote about it in a now lost work (Plut. Brutus 48; 51). Possibly identical to V. [4]? Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Amintinus Gallus…


(3,269 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile, in its older form, Papisius (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3), from which one of the 16 old rural tribes ( tribus ) took its name. The patrician gens formed several branches at an early time (5th/4th cents. BC: Crassi, Cursores, Mugillani, 3rd cent.: Masones) who played a significant role in the military successes of the Republic, but became either extinct no later than the 2nd cent. BC or politically insignificant. The younger plebeian branch of the Carbones rose in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. and gained notoriety…


(1,228 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman family (also often given as Vetusius; on the origin of the gens Veturia [1. 284]), for which the tribus Voturia was named [2. 42]. The Veturii played a prominent political role in various phases of the Republic: from the beginning of the Republic to the leges Liciniae Sextiae (367 BC) with the Veturii [I 3-6] Cicurini, in the time between 334 and 321 with V. [I 1], and in the time of the 2nd Punic War with the Veturii [I 7-8] Philones. While the patrician status of the Cicurini and Philones can be regarded as certain (but cf. [3.…


(623 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name, probably of Latin origin with Etruscan parallels (the patrician gens in Dion Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7 is invented), historically attested no earlier than the 3rd century BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Between 220-219 BC Creator of a lex Metilia In 220-219 BC, at the instigation of the censors C. Flaminius [1] and L. Aemilius [I 27] Papus, a l ex Metilia was passed on the professional status of fullers ( fullones) (Plin. HN. 35,197; MRR 1, 236). Its exact purpose, its creator and his office remain…


(2,326 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Widely occurring Roman nomen gentile derived from the numeral praenomen Octavus ('one born in the eighth month', which disappeared later, still surviving in Octavus Mamilius [2]). Of political importance in Rome from the 2nd cent. BC is only the older line which consecutively produced five consuls (O. [I 4-8]; preferred praenomen: Cn.; regarding the family relationships [1. 405-407]); the members of the related younger line (resident in Velitrae), on the other hand, from which the later princeps Augustus originated, did not rise above equestri…


(2,687 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Roman patrician gentilic name (from the praenomen Postumus ), found in the highest offices from the 5th cent. BC on and politically significant until the 2nd cent. BC. As dictator in 499 or 496 BC, an A. P. is supposed to have decided the battle at Lacus Regillus (Liv. 2,19-20). The Albi or Albini (Regillenses), who withdrew from politics with P. [I 9]'s military failure in the Jugurthine War at the end of the 2nd cent. BC, are his descendants. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., C. Etruscan haruspex, even consulted by Sulla Etruscan haruspex ( haruspices


(262 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
Three bearers  of the Italic gens name S. are known from the late Republic. [German version] [1] S., L. Held a pro-consular imperium over Hispania Ulterior By popular vote a pro-consular imperium over Hispania Ulterior was transferred to him for 199 BC (Liv. 31,50,10-11 and [1]), and he returned in 196 with such great booty that he was able to have three arches built in Rome (Liv. 33,27,3-4); In 196 he was a member of a commission to re-organize Greece (Pol. 18,48,2 and [2]). Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] S., C. Praetor of Sardinia in 188 BC Praetor of Sardinia in 188 BC …


(466 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] Comedy writer, end of the 3rd / beginning of the 2nd cent. BC Roman comedy writer, in the general opinion of scholars a contemporary of Plautus (second half of the 3rd/beginning of the 2nd cent. BC), according to [7], however, from the late 2nd cent. BC. In the latter case, it is not T. but Afranius [4] who would have been the archegetes of the Roman national comedy ( fabula togata ); T. would have been responsible for its flourishing. In 15 plays proved to be his he distinguished himself, according to Varro [2] (in Char. 315…


(939 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] (οἰκουμένη/ oikoumén ē, Lat. oecumene) is a participle originally referring to (γῆ, 'earth') and designating 'the inhabited part of the earth' in contrast to the uninhabited portion. The oldest preserved evidence (Xenophan. fr. 41 DK) already links the word to the collective subject 'we' ( sc. human beings) and thus relates oikoumene to a 'humankind' that is not further specified. Accordingly, the oikoumene is not only a geographic entity, but first of all a social realm established by its inhabitants' ability, at least in principle, to fo…


(91 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] T., M. As a curule aedile in 192 BC he conducted many cases against profiteers and used the fines to lavishly decorate public buildings (Liv. 35,41,9-10). As praetor in 190 he was allotted Apulia et Bruttii as his area of responsibility and this office was twice extended (Liv. 37,2,1; 37,50,13; 38,36,1). In 186 he was one of the tresviri at the renewal of the colonies of Sipontum and Buxentum (Liv. 39,23,3-4). Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] T. Cerialis See M. Tullius [II 1] Cerialis. Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)


(3,846 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman patrician family (epigraphically also Serveilius), said to have migrated to Rome from Alba Longa under king Tullus Hostilius [4] (Liv. 1,30,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7). The oldest branches are the Ahalae and Fidenates in the 5th and 4th cents. BC; the Caepiones and Gemini, from whom the Vatiae (Isaurici) descended, appear in the 3rd cent. The last prominent member of the Servilii Caepiones was the murderer of Caesar, M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, son of Servilia [1], and himself adopted into the family. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A fleet commander in the B…


(3,960 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Name of a patrician Roman family, derived from the praenomen Quintus (comparable to Sextus/ Sextius, etc.), often also Quintius in inscriptions and MSS. The origin of the family is unknown; its great age is suggested by its connection with the festival of the Lupercalia (Ov. Fast. 2,378 has Quintilii) and the unusual praenomen of the family, Kaeso, encountered in this context ( v. Q. [I 1]). Livy counts them among the families that migrated to Rome from Alba with King Tullius Hostilius (1,32,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7 mentions the Quinctilii). The Quinctii are mentioned many tim…

Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes

(7,177 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Schmitt, Arbogast
Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) [German version] A. The Fundamental Argument of the Querelle (CT) In the European history of ideas, several ages have tried to explain what is specifically different about them by means of a direct confrontation with the Antiquity (i.e. as they conceive it). It was even more common in certain areas for what was considered 'modern' in a period to be directly set against and apart from what was considered 'ancient' . A particular focus in historical research has been on the  Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes (QAM). In a poem dedicated to the 'Siècle de…


(227 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo | Nutton, Vivian; Ü:L.v.R.-B.
Aus der Zeit der hohen Republik sind drei Träger des ital. Gentilnamens S. bekannt. [English version] [1] S., L. Ihm wurde durch Volkswahl für 199 v. Chr. ein prokonsulares Imperium für Hispania ulterior übertragen (Liv. 31,50,10-11 mit [1]), von wo er 196 mit so reicher Beute zurückkehrte, daß er in Rom drei Bögen errichten lassen konnte (Liv. 33,27,3-4); 196 gehörte er der Kommission zur Neuordnung Griechenlands an (Pol. 18,48,2 mit [2]). Schmitt, Tassilo [English version] [2] S., C. Praetor für Sardinien 188 v. Chr. (Liv. 38,35). Schmitt, Tassilo [English version] [3] S., L. Kümmer…

Süden und Norden

(323 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo
[English version] (νότος/ nótos, lat. auster und βορέας/ boréas, lat. aquilo). Während in Äg. der Nil als N.-S.-Achse eine Haupthimmelsrichtung vorgab, galten N. und S. für Griechen und Römer ‘in einer als west-östl. gerichteten Ellipse gedachten, in Klima-Zonen gegliederten Oikumene als Ränder und Grenzbereiche’ ([1. 311]). Die N.- und S.-Winde hingegen sahen einige Autoren sogar als Hauptwinde an (Strab. 1,2,21). Obwohl es alte Handelsbeziehungen bis weit in den N. gab (Bernstein, Zinn), blieben allg. K…


(3,056 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Köln) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
(griech. meist Μάλλιος, hsl. oft mit Mallius und Manilius verwechselt). Name einer röm. patrizischen Familie, wohl etr. Herkunft [1. 227]. In den Zweigen der Vulsones und Capitolini (fortgesetzt von den Torquati) erreichte sie im 5. und 4. Jh.v.Chr. einen frühen polit. Höhepunkt; die Überl. verbindet die Familiengesch. v.a. mit der Abwehr der Kelten (M. [I 8] und [I 12]; Stammbäume - im einzelnen unsicher: [2. 1157f., 1166]). Nach einer Phase des Niedergangs bis um 260 v.Chr. traten die jüngere …


(1,061 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Oskisches Praenomen, dann weitverbreiteter Gentilname; in Rom bereits für das 5. Jh.v.Chr. lit. erwähnt (O. [I 5]), histor. aber erst seit dem 2. Jh. belegt. Erfindung ist der Tusculaner Opiter O., der dem Mons O. in Rom den Namen gegeben haben soll (Varro bei Fest. 476 L.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] O., C. Urheber eines Gesetzes 215 v. Chr. zur Beschränkung der Demonstration von Reichtum Beschnitt 215 v.Chr. mit einem Gesetz die Möglichkeiten von Frauen, Reichtum zu demonstrieren (Liv. 34,1,1-3 u.a.; MRR 1, 25…

Orient und Okzident

(573 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[English version] Orient (Or.) und Okzident (Ok.) heißen als Weltgegenden nach den Himmelsrichtungen, in denen sie liegen. Diese wiederum sind nach dem Sonnenaufgang (ἀνατολή/ anatolḗ, “Aufgang”, vgl. “Anatolien”; lat. sol oriens) und in Analogie dazu nach dem Untergang (δύσις, lat. sol occidens) benannt. Durch diese Phänomene war schon für Homer eine ost-westl. Hauptachse der Welterfassung und -beschreibung bestimmt (Od. 10,190-192), die sich etwa von der in Äg. üblichen unterschied, die an der Fließrichtung des Nil ausgerichtet war. …


(1,052 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian | Schmitt, Tassilo | Eck, Werner
Name eines röm. Geschlechts (vielfach auch als Vetusius überliefert; zur Herkunft der gens Veturia [1. 284]), nach der die tribus Voturia benannt war [2. 42]. In verschiedenen Phasen der Republik spielten die Veturii eine prominente polit. Rolle: Vom Beginn der Republik bis zu den leges Liciniae Sextiae (367 v. Chr.) mit den Veturii [I 3-6] Cicurini, in der Zeit zw. 334 und 321 mit V. [I 1] und in der Zeit des 2. Punischen Krieges mit den Veturii [I 7-8] Philones. Während der patrizische Stand der Cicurini und Philones als gesichert gelte…


(113 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo
V. ist ein bes. in Campania belegtes Gentilnomen. [English version] [1] Decius V. Führte die kampanische Truppe, die die Römer 282 oder 280 v. Chr. nach Rhegion verlegt hatten. Die Besatzung errichtete dort später im Bündnis mit Gleichgesinnten in Messana [1] auf Sizilien eine selbständige Herrschaft. Nach dem Sieg der Römer 270 wurden alle Überlebenden hingerichtet (Pol. 1,7; Diod. 22,1,2-3; Dion. Hal. ant. 20,4-5; Cass. Dio fr. 40,7-12). Schmitt, Tassilo [English version] [2] Cerrinus V. Taurea Einer der führenden Männer aus Capua, um die sich anekdotenhafte, oft gen…
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