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al-Ḥodaida

(427 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hodáde, Hadída), a seaport in Arabia, on the Red Sea about no miles N.N.W. of Mok̲h̲a [q. v.], the most important port for the coffee trade in Yemen and a landingplace for pilgrims to Mecca from Central Africa. It is under the protection of a patron saint, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣadīḳ, whose festival is celebrated on the fifteenth day of the month S̲h̲aʿbān. In the time of Niebuhr and Seetzen, al-Ḥodaida belonged to the Imām of Ṣanʿāʾ. In 183 7 Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a was commander in the town. Since 1899, al-Ḥod…

al-Darʿīya

(421 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Dreyeh, Deraya, Daraaije, or Drahia) a town in the district of al-ʿĀriḍ in the Nad̲j̲d country in Arabia, on the ¶ caravan route from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf. It was handsomely built of stone and lay at the foot of high hills in a narrow valley, and a little wādī (W. Ḥanīfa) which was usually dry in summer ran through it. In addition to a large and several smaller mosques it had many madrasas. It lay in a very fertile neighbourhood and was surrounded by extensive wheat, barley and milletfields and rich orchards with extensive date-palm g…

Ḥāyil

(817 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Hāyel, Haīl, Hāeyl), the capital of the land of Ḏj̲ebel-S̲h̲ammar [q. v.] in western Ned̲j̲d in the centre of a long plain called Sāhila al-Ḵh̲ammashīya, which lies between the parallel ranges of Ad̲j̲aʾ (M’nīf) and Salmā (Fittī) about 5000 feet about the level of the sea. The town, which is one of the main stations on the route for Persian pilgrims to Mecca, is surrounded by walls about 20 feet high and round and square towers. It is divided into eleven quarters and has a large mosque, a fort…

Ḥais

(477 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Häs, Hēs),a town in South Arabia, at the foot of the Ḏj̲ebel Raʾs at the entrance to a valley about five miles S. E. of Zabīd. [q. v.]. In 1842 it consisted of 500 houses of earth and stone, 250 round huts, an old castle with a garrison of 300 men, 21 mosques, including one large one which was already falling into ruins, 10 coffee-houses and inns, several coffee-mills and potteries, the latter of which supplied the whole of the Yemen, a few dye-works and indigo factories, and numbered 2000 men c…

Hawāzin

(1,278 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large North Arabian tribe. Their genealogy is Hawāzin b. Manṣūr b, ʿIkrima b. Ḵh̲aṣafa b. Ḳais Ailān b. Muḍar. Among the important clans of the Hawāzin may be mentioned the T̲h̲aḳīf in Ṭāʾif northeast of Mecca where there is still a powerful tribe of them, the ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa [q. v.], the Ḏj̲us̲h̲am, the Saʿd b. Bakr ¶ (Ḥalīma b. Abī Ḏh̲uwaib, the nurse of the Prophet, was descended from them) and Hilāl. They were of the same stock as the Sulaim. During the Ḏj̲āhiliya they worshipped the idol Ḏj̲ihār in ʿUkāẓ, the large and much frequented market o…

Ḥawra

(198 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥōra), a town in Ḥaḍramūt, N. E. of Has̲h̲arēn [q. v.] on the Ḏj̲ebel of the same name. The little Wādī Ḥōra flows past it, running for the earlier part of its course parallel to the large Wādī ʿAin (see ḥaḍramawt, p. 208a) and then joining it. At the upper end of the town there is a large ḥiṣn with seven stories, flanked by corner towers, which commands the town. Here the ḥākim resides; he is appointed by the Ḳuʿaiṭīs of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.], to whom the town belongs. Ḥawra possesses a small bazaar and two mosques and is surrounded by gardens and fields,…

Ḥaḍūr

(704 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥadūr Nabī [Nebbi] S̲h̲uʿaib), a mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the Sarāt group of Alhān, to the west of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] between the Wādī Sahām and the Wādī Surdud near the Ḥarāz range [q. v.], from which it was separated in Hamdānī’s time by the Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ (now Ḥaima [q. v.]) inhabited by the Ṣulaiḥ (a branch of the Ḥamdān). The name Ḥaḍūr is derived from Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, an ancestor of the prophet S̲h̲uʿaib b. Mahdam, mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (cf. Sūra vii. 83 et seq. and xi. 85 et seo.) who was sent to preach and to warn his people on Mount Ḥaḍūr and was thereupon slain by them. The…

Hamdān

(758 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
( of the South Arabian inscriptions), a large Arab tribe, belonging to the Yemen group. Their genealogy is Hamdān (Awsala) b. Mālik b. Zaid b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-Ḵh̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zaid b. Kahlān. Their land, the Balad Hamdān, a centre of civilization in ancient Arabia, was five days’ journey in length and breadth and lay to the north of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] it stretched eastwards as far as Maʾrib [q. v.] and Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.], northwards to Ṣaʿda [q. v.] almost up to the desert and westwards to the coast (Abū Arīs̲h̲). It was divid…

Ḍibāb

(274 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddite group. They were the descendants of Muʿāwiya b. Kilāb, who was called al-Ḍibāb because of three of his sons (Ḍibāb, Ḍabb und Muḍibb). Their genealogy is: Muʿāwiya b. Kilāb b. Rabīʿa b. ʿAmr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Ilawāzin. They dwelled in the district of Ḥima Ḍarīya in the Nad̲j̲d territory. The following settlements of the Ḍibāb are mentioned: Ḏj̲azʿ Banī Kūz, Dāra Ḏj̲uld̲j̲ul and Ṭulūḥ; mountains: Ak̲h̲zum, al-Ḏj̲aws̲h̲anīya, Ḏh̲āt Ārām, al-Yaḥmūm (a large black hill), Kabs̲h̲a (with Dāra al-Kabas̲h…

Aḳārib

(160 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Sing. ʿAḳrabī; according to Sprenger, Die alte Geographie Arabiens p. 80, identical with the Agraei of Pliny), a South-Arabian tribe in the neighbourhood of ʿAden. Their territory, which is very small (only about 2—3 square miles), is crossed by the lower part of the river of Laḥed̲j̲ [q. v.], which here is nearly always dry. As rain is also lacking, the soil is barren and yields but little fruit. The chief town is Biʾr Aḥmed, with some hundred inhabitants and the castle of the Sultan, who resides ther…

G̲h̲anī

(337 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Aʿṣur, a tribe in North Arabia, a branch of the Ḳais b. ʿAilān and related to the G̲h̲kṭafān [q. v., p. 144b et seq.]. They lived around Ḥimā Ḍarīya in Nad̲j̲d and were neighbours of the Ṭaiy with whom they were constantly at feud. In the time of the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idols al-Lāt, Manāt and al-ʿUzzā, all of whom are mentioned in the Ḳorʾān (Sūra liii. 19, 20). The great pre-Islāmic poet Ṭufail b. ʿAwf, called Ṭufail al-Ḵh̲ail (on account of his skill in depicting the horse) belonged to the G̲h̲anī. Among the settlements of the G̲h̲anī were: Ayhab, Awʿāl, Ad̲h̲ruʿāt, Baṭn…

al-Ḥawṭa

(120 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name given in South Arabia to a district which is considered holy and regarded as a place of refuge. The substantive al-ḥawṭa denotes a place surrounded by a wall, then a place under the protection of a saint,’ who is buried there. The most important Ḥawṭa in South Arabia is that at ʿĪnāt (ʿAināt [q. v.] in Ḥaḍramūt, where the famous S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Munṣab Bū Bakr b. Sālim is buried. The second in importance is the Ḥawṭa in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The name Ḥawṭa is also borne by the capital of the land of the…

Hid̲j̲ra

(160 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name of a village (indeed of several) in South Arabia which is exclusively inhabited by Sāda or As̲h̲rāf (“lords”, “notables”, descendants of the Prophet) and is considered sacrosanct. These villages (e. g. Ḥaifa in Arḥab [cf. ḥās̲h̲id and bakīl] may not be overrun in war. The members of the Hid̲j̲ra, who are chiefly judges ( ḳuḍāt) and jurists ( fuḳahāʾ) receive from the tribe to which they belong a certificate of their membership of the Hid̲j̲ra and enjoy great esteem, which surpasses that of a s̲h̲aik̲h̲. Individual members are. also found scatte…

Ḏj̲aʿda

(351 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Kaʿb, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is: Ḏj̲aʿda b. Kaʿb b. Rabīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Hawāzin. The Ḳus̲h̲air and ʿUḳail were closely related tribes. The poet Nābig̲h̲a (al-Ḏj̲aʿdī) traces his descent from the Ḏj̲aʿda b. Kaʿb. They inhabited the district of Falad̲j̲ in the territory of Yamāma. Of places, which belonged to them, there are mentioned, amongst others: Ukma (a large fortified town on the Wādī of the same name, with a much frequented market, many wells, bazaars and …

Ḥūla

(75 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a town in Arabia, in the province of Sedeyr (Ṣudair) in Nad̲j̲d, north of Ḥuraimila [q. v.]. The inhabitants are partly tradesmen and partly agriculturists. Its trade and prosperity has markedly increased under Wahhābī rule. During Palgrave’s stay in Nad̲j̲d, Ḥūla was one of the most flourishing places in Sedeyr. The town is surrounded by walls. (J. Schleifer) Bibliography Palgrave, A Narrative of a Year’s Journey in Arabia (London 1865), i. 338 sq.

ʿĪnāt

(234 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a town in Ḥaḍramūt, south east of Tarīm, on the wādī of the same name. The family of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Bakr, the only Saiyid family in Ḥaḍramūt to bear arms, lives here. It has two munṣib’s of whom one is chief of the Banū Thanna [see ḥaḍramawt]. In the eighties of last century there lived in ʿĪnāt the greatest saint of Ḥaḍramūt, Saiyid Muhsin b. Sālim, of the family of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Bakr, to whom people made pilgrimages from the whole country and from more distant lands, such as the Indian Archipelago, on account of the miracles performed b…

al-Ḥāḍina

(144 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a small independent territory in South Arabia, north of the Wāḥidī. It is one of the most interesting and most fertile territories in South Arabia. The products of the soil, which is artificially irrigated by canals from the Wādī ʿAbadān are hawīr (indigo), d̲h̲ura (a kind of maize) and duk̲h̲n (millet). Al-Ḥāḍina is inhabited by the tribe al-Ḵh̲alīfa, which claims descent from the Hilāl [q. v.]. On the migration of the Hilāl they remained in South Arabia, whence ¶ their name Ḵh̲alīfa. They number about 1000 fighting men and are ruled by an ʿAḳīl whose residence is in th…

Dat̲h̲īna

(441 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia, lying to the west of the land of the ʿAwāliḳ [q. v., p. 514] in the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr. It is a fairly mountainous country with a dry climate, as a rule. The soil is fertile only in the N. E. where it produces tobacco, wheat and maize. The main wādīs are: the very fertile Wādī Marrān (Mirān) and the Wādī al-Ḍura. Dat̲h̲īna is inhabited by two large tribes, the main branch, the Ahl um-Saʿīdī (Ahl al-Saʿīdī) and the ʿÖlah (al-ʿUlah, ʿUlah al-Kawr and ʿUlah al-Baḥr). The chief town is Blad Ahl um-Saʿīdī with several hundred inha…

G̲h̲ifār

(218 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is: G̲h̲ifār b. Mulaik b. Ḍamra b. Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt b. Kināna; they were closely allied to the Hud̲h̲ail. They lived in the Hid̲j̲āz. The following places belonged to them: Aḍāʾa (near Mecca), Baʿāl (near ʿUsfān, also given as a hill), S̲h̲adak̲h̲ (in common with the Uslum), G̲h̲aiḳa, Waddān (both the latter between Mecca and Medīna), al-Tanādib and the hill of Musliḥ. In the year 8 (629) the G̲h̲ifār adopted Islām. In the same year they took part in the conquest of Mecca along with the Muzai…

ʿAwd̲h̲illa

(208 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(sing. ʿAwd̲h̲alī, pl. ʿAwād̲h̲ila, in Hamdānī, Banū Awd; according to Sprenger, Die alte Geogr. Arabiens, p. 206, 269, identical with the Оὐδηνοι of Ptolemy and the Autaridae of Pliny), a South Arabian tribe. Their territory, lying between the land of the Yāfiʿa and that of the ʿAwāliḳ, is for the most part highland and crossed by a great range, the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr (Kor) often also called Ẓāhir (Ḍaher). Of the Wādīs that rise in the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr the W. Yerāmīs (Jerames) is the best watered. The climate is tropi…
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