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Hilāl

(2,768 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R. | Schleifer, J.
, eponymous ancestor of the tribe of the Banū Hilāl whom the Arab genealogists trace back to Muḍar according to the following lineage: Muḍar → ʿAylān → Ḳays → K̲h̲aṣafa → ʿ Ikrima → Manṣūr → Hawāzin → Bakr → Muʿāwiya → Ṣaʿṣaʿa →ʿ Amīr → Hilāl. Its three main divisions were the At̲h̲bad̲j̲, the Riyāḥ and the Zug̲h̲ba. This tribe naturally played its part along with the other groups of the ʿĀmīr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa in the pre-Islamic tribal struggles or Ayyām al-ʿArab [ q.v.] and in the affairs connected with the beginning of Islam such as that of Biʾr Maʿūna [ q.v.]. It is likely that it did not support I…

Ḥāsik

(475 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
( Hasek ), a town in the Mahra country [ q.v.], east of Mirbāṭ [ q.v.] in 17° 21′ N. Lat. and 55° 23′ E. Long., at the foot of the high mountain of Nūs (Lūs), the ʾΑσίχων of the Periplus Maris Erythraei . Before the town lies the “bay of herbs” (D̲j̲ūn al-Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲), the bay of Ḥāsik (Raʾs Ḥāsik), also called Kuria Muria Bay after the two islands lying opposite (K̲h̲aryān and Maryān in Idrīsī). Idrīsī describes Ḥāsik as a small fortified town four days ¶ east of Mirbāṭ, with many inhabitants, who are fishermen. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa landed here on his way through to ʿUmān and found the h…

al-Ḥāḍina

(237 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
, a small independent region of South Arabia, now in the Upper ʿAwlaḳī Sultanate. It is one of the most fertile districts of South Arabia and is irrigated by canals from the Wādī ʿAbadān. The products of the soil, which is of volcanic origin, include indigo, which is exported to al-Ḥawṭa, d̲h̲ura and millet. Al-Ḥāḍina is inhabited by the tribe Ahl K̲h̲alīfa which claims descent from the Hilāl [ q.v.]. When the Hilāl emigrated from South Arabia they remained behind, whence their name K̲h̲alīfa. In the past they ordinarily acknowledged no authority, but in time of …

al-Ḏj̲awf

(239 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Ḏj̲ōf), a district in South Arabia between Nad̲j̲rān and Ḥaḍramawt. According to the information obtained by Niebuhr during his stay in Vaman, it is for the most part ¶ flat and desert; many camels and horses are reared in it and are also exported. The soil is in many places also suitable for agriculture. The inhabitants are warlike Bedouins, who wear iron helmets and cuirasses. The chief place in Ḏj̲awf is Maʾrib, which is governed by its own S̲h̲arīf, while the villages and the desert are governed by an independent S̲h̲aik̲h̲. Al-Ḏj̲awf is first mentioned by Hamdānī in his Ḏj̲azīra. He …

Ḏj̲awf al-Sirḥān

(396 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab district in the north of Nad̲j̲d towards Syria, on the Wādī Sirḥān, the largest oasis in North Arabia next to Taimā. The most important town in Ḏj̲awf al-Sirḥān was Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal (the Δουμαίθα of Ptolemy) with the fortress of Mārid. This place which is said to be called after a son of Ishmael is known to us from the history of Muḥammad. When the Prophet was advancing against Tabūk in the year 9 = 630, he sent his general Ḵh̲ālid b. al-Walīd to Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal, which was then under the rule of the Christian princ…

Ḳalhāt

(294 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(in Marco Polo Calatu, in Portuguese writers Calaiate), a once flourishing seaport in ʿOmān lying northwest of Rās al-Ḥadd. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, who visited the town during his travels in ʿOmān, specially mentions the fine streets and splendid lofty mosque, which afforded a wide view of the sea and the harbour and was built by the pious Bītī (of noble family) Maryam. The inhabitants of the town, who lived by trading in Indian products, and spoke a bad Arabic, were members of the Ibāḍīya sect (see ibāḍīya), but concealed their creed from their rulers, the kings of Hormuz [q. v.] (cf. als…

ʿAḳrabī

(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Stern, S.M.
(plural: ʿAḳārib), a Soutb Arabian tribe in the neighbourhood of Aden. Their territory, stretching on the coast line from Biʾr Aḥmad to Raʾs ʿImrān, is very small (a few square miles only). It is crossed by the lower part of the river of Laḥid̲j̲, which here is nearly always dry; as rain is also lacking, the soil is barren and yields but little fruit. The chief town is Biʾr Aḥmad, with a few hundred inhabitants and the castle of the sultan. The ʿAḳārib, according to the Rasūlid al-As̲h̲raf, Turfat al-Aṣḥāb (Zetterstéen), 56, 57, belonged to the Kuḍāʿa (text obs…

Ḥud̲j̲riyya

(506 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L.O.
(Ḥogariyya), name of a tribe, and of an administrative division ( ḳaḍāʾ , district) in the Yaman, one of the four districts in the province ( liwāʾ ) of Taʿizz. It is to the east of the ḳaḍāʾ of al-Mak̲h̲āʾ and to the south-west of Taʿizz, on the frontier of the South-Arabian Federation. The area is entirely mountainous, well-cultivated (coffee, cereals) and rich in livestock; according to Hey worth-Dunne it is famous for producing a kind of ass called sawriḳiyya . The number of inhabitants in this district was given by the same author in 1952 as 192,3…

Ḥaḍūr

(482 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Irvine, A.K.
( Ḥaḍūr Nabī S̲h̲uʿayb ), a mountain massif in the Yemen on the eastern edge of the Sarāt Alhān, some twelve miles west of Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.], lying between the wādīs Sihām and Surdūd. It is separated from the Ḥarāz range to the west by the Ḥaymat al-K̲h̲ārid̲j̲iwa [ q.v.], known in Hamdānī’s time as the Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ and inhabited by the Sulayḥ, a branch of Hamdān. The massif is named after Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, an ancestor of the Prophet S̲h̲uʿayb b. Mahdam, who is mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (cf. Sūra VII, 83 f. and XI, 85 f.). He had been sent to preach to an…

D̲h̲amār

(396 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
(or D̲h̲imār , see Yāḳūt s.v.), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf ) and town in South Arabia, south of Ṣanʿā, on the Ṣanʿā-ʿAdan road, near the fortress of Hirrān. The district of D̲h̲amār was very fertile and had rich cornfields, splendid gardens, and many ancient citadels and palaces. On account of its fertility it was called the Miṣr of Yaman. The horses of D̲h̲amār were famed throughout Yaman for their noble pedigree. Amongst places which are mentioned as belonging to the district of D̲h̲amār are the following: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb, Dalān and D̲h̲amūrān (…

Ḥarb

(464 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a powerful Arab tribe of Yemenī origin in the Ḥid̲j̲āz between Mecca and Medina. They are divided into two great bodies, the Banū Sālim and B. Muṣrūḥ. To the B. Sālim belong amongst other clans, al-Ḥamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Walād Salīm, Tamīm (not the celebrated great tribe of this name), Muzayna, al-Hawāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), and Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); to the Muṣrūḥ, amongst others: Saʿdī (Saʿadī), Laḥabba, Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-D̲j̲ahm, Banū ʿAmr. Doughty gives amongst others the following villages of the B. Sālim (between Medina and Yanbuʿ and o…

al-Ḏh̲iʾāb

(227 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Löfgren, O.
, “the wolves”, a South Arabian tribe whose lands lie between the territory of the Lower ʿAwāliḳ [ q.v.] and the Lower Wāḥidī [ q.v.]. There are also considerable settlements of the D̲h̲iʾāb in the country of the Lower Wāḥidī itself, the villages of which are largely occupied by them. The soil is unfertile and mostly prairie-like pasture land. In the east of the distict is a mountain of some size, the D̲j̲abal Ḥamrā, over 4000 ft. high. The chief place is the fishing village of Ḥawra (al-Ulyā) with an important harbour. The D̲h̲iʾāb are a very wild, warlike tribe of ¶ robbers, and are therefore…

Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb

(567 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Schuman, L.O.
, name (“Crow Castle”) of a mountain bearing on its summit the ruins of an ancient castle, situated on the southern coast of Arabia in the territory of the Wāḥidī [ q.v.] sultanate at the eastern end of the South Arabian Federation, near the small town of Bīr ʿAlī (14° N., 48° 19′ E.). The mountain, which is of volcanic origin like several small islands in its vicinity and has its name because of its conspicuous blackish brown colour, is connected with the mainland, as it was already in the 1st century A…

Hamdān

(578 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, a large Arab tribe of the Yemen group, the full genealogy being Hamdān (Awsala) b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-K̲h̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Kahlān. Their territory lay to the north of Ṣanʿā [ q.v.], stretching eastwards to Maʾrib [ q.v.] and Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.], northwards to Ṣaʿda [ q.v.], and westwards to the coast (Abū Arīs̲h̲). The eastern half belonged to the sub-tribe of Bakīl, the western to Ḥās̲h̲id [ q.v.], and these are still found there. In the D̲j̲āhiliyya Hamdān worshipped the idol Yaʿūḳ (but probably not Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲ as sometimes stated; cf. Wellhausen, Reste

Ḥanīfa

(898 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Lud̲j̲aim, an important branch of the great North Arabian tribe of Bakr b. Wāʾil [q. v.], consanguineous to the ʿId̲j̲l. During the Ḏj̲āhilīya they were in part heathen, in part Christian. The pagans honoured an idol īn the form of a cake of butter and honey, which they used themselves to consume in time of famine. They led a settled life in Yamāma, where they built the fortified town of Ḥad̲j̲r, which later became the capital. The Wādi ’l-ʿIrḍ and among others the following places belonged to them: al-ʿAwḳa (inhabited by the clan ʿAdī), Fais̲h̲ān …

Hud̲h̲ail

(916 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large Arab tribe, belonging to the North Arabian group. Their genealogy is Hud̲h̲ail b. Mudrika b. al-Yās b. Muḍar. They were a brother tribe of the Ḵh̲uzaina. They inhabited the mountains of Sarāt Hud̲h̲ail, which bear their name, between Mecca and Medīna and were neighbours of the Sulaim [q. v.] and Kināna [q. v.]. In the time of Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idol Suwāʿ (destroyed by ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ in 8 = 630) at Ruhāṭ and, like the Ḳurais̲h̲, Ḵh̲uzāʿa, and other tribes, also Manāt (destr…

G̲h̲alāfiḳa

(167 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ghalefka, Alafaka, the Ditio Sabaeorum of Pliny), at one time a nourishing seaport in Yemen, near Bait al-Faḳīh [q. v., i. 597b et seq.]. It was an important emporium and was known as the harbour of Zebīd. About a century before Niebuhr’s journey in Yemen the harbour of G̲h̲alāfiḳa became inaccessible through coral reefs, whereupon the rich traders of this coast-town moved to Bait al-Faḳīh, which rapidly became a flourishing commercial town. During his stay in Yemen, Niebuhr saw only a few walls, a mosque and several tombstones remaining of this once prosperous town. (J. Schleifer) Biblio…

al-Ḥabaṭ

(165 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name in South Arabia for a sacred area, which is under the protection of a saint, who is usually buried there, and is a place of refuge. No one who seeks asylum on this holy ground may be slain or attacked there. The verb ḥabaṭa in South Arabia means “to hold back” “to restrain”. The most important ḥabaṭ in South Arabia is that of Ḏj̲ebel Kadūr, which lies to the south of the village of Liḥya (Laḥya) on the Wādī Ḥabbān in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. Four saints ( mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ of the tribe of Bā Marḥūl, to whom Liḥya belongs, are buried there. This habaṭ therefore is also known as Ḥabaṭ al-Ar…

Ḥabbān

(299 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Abban), a town in South Arabia, the capital of the territory of the Upper Wāḥidī [q. v.], situated in the wādī of the same name. According to Miles it has about 4000 inhabitants, but this figure seems to be too high. The Sulṭān of the Wāḥidī dwells here in the Castle of Maṣnaʿa Ḥāḳir, which is built on a small isolated hill in the midst of the city and surrounded by a wall. The town itself has no walls and only two watchtowers at each end of it. The houses are strongly built like little fortres…

Ḥaima al-K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īya

(327 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(“Outer-Ḥaima”, in Niebuhr Heime al-Asfal “Lower-Ḥaima”), also called Ḥud̲j̲ra, a district in South Arabia, between Ḥarāz [q. v.] and Ḥaḍūr S̲h̲uʿaib [q. v.]. It is an izzle (small district) of the ḳaḍā (large district) of Manāk̲h̲a [q. v.] and stretches from Bawʿān (probably Yoān in Niebuhr, 8570 feet above sealevel, with a market) to Bait al-Mahdī. The capital is Mefḥaḳ (Möfḥaḳ in Niebuhr with ḥiṣn). North of Mefḥaḳ at Ḏj̲ebel Manār (8700 feet above sealevel) lies Sūḳ al-Ḵh̲amīs, a spur of the Ḳara al-Waʾl (“deer-antle…
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