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al-Ḥid̲j̲r

(136 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in Arabia near Bīs̲h̲a [q. v.] and the land of the Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam. It is called after Ḥid̲j̲r b. al-Azd. The land of al-Ḥid̲j̲r was very fertile and rich in fields of wheat and barley and had many fruit-trees (apples, peaches, figs, plums and almonds). Among the clans of Ḥid̲j̲r Hamdānī mentions the ʿĀmir (with the subdivision ʿAbd), Aṣābig̲h̲a, Rabīʿa, S̲h̲āhr (with the divisions al-Asmar, Bal-Ḥārit̲h̲, Malik, Naṣr and Nāzila). Among places in the land of al-Ḥid̲j̲r he mentions As̲h̲d…

al-Ḏj̲awf

(239 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Ḏj̲ōf), a district in South Arabia between Nad̲j̲rān and Ḥaḍramawt. According to the information obtained by Niebuhr during his stay in Vaman, it is for the most part ¶ flat and desert; many camels and horses are reared in it and are also exported. The soil is in many places also suitable for agriculture. The inhabitants are warlike Bedouins, who wear iron helmets and cuirasses. The chief place in Ḏj̲awf is Maʾrib, which is governed by its own S̲h̲arīf, while the villages and the desert are governed by an independent S̲h̲aik̲h̲. Al-Ḏj̲awf is first mentioned by Hamdānī in his Ḏj̲azīra. He …

Ḏj̲awf al-Sirḥān

(396 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab district in the north of Nad̲j̲d towards Syria, on the Wādī Sirḥān, the largest oasis in North Arabia next to Taimā. The most important town in Ḏj̲awf al-Sirḥān was Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal (the Δουμαίθα of Ptolemy) with the fortress of Mārid. This place which is said to be called after a son of Ishmael is known to us from the history of Muḥammad. When the Prophet was advancing against Tabūk in the year 9 = 630, he sent his general Ḵh̲ālid b. al-Walīd to Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal, which was then under the rule of the Christian princ…

Ḳalhāt

(294 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(in Marco Polo Calatu, in Portuguese writers Calaiate), a once flourishing seaport in ʿOmān lying northwest of Rās al-Ḥadd. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, who visited the town during his travels in ʿOmān, specially mentions the fine streets and splendid lofty mosque, which afforded a wide view of the sea and the harbour and was built by the pious Bītī (of noble family) Maryam. The inhabitants of the town, who lived by trading in Indian products, and spoke a bad Arabic, were members of the Ibāḍīya sect (see ibāḍīya), but concealed their creed from their rulers, the kings of Hormuz [q. v.] (cf. als…

Farasān

(181 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Farsān), a group of islands in the S. W. of Cape Ḏj̲izān, opposite the harbour of Abū ʿArīs̲h̲ in Tihāma. The largest of these islands are Farasān Kabīr with the harbour of Ḵh̲ōr Farasān and Farasān Ṣag̲h̲īr. Muharrak and Seyed are other places worthy of mention besides Ḵh̲ōr. The inhabitants fish for pearls and catch turtles, which brings them great wealth. Ehrenberg, who discovered the islands, saw many date-groves and fields growing durra and melons, Arab antelopes, numerous gazelles and goats there. Hamdānī was acquainted with these islands. Their inhabitants, who take t…

Ḥod̲j̲aila

(178 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a village in South Arabia, at the foot of Ḥarāz [q. v.] about 1900 feet above the sea level, a border village of the Tihāma. It belongs to the ḳaḍā of Manāk̲h̲a [q. v.] and to the mudīrlik of Mitwaḥ on Ḏj̲ebel Saʿfān (Ḥarāz). It has a market and Turkish barracks. The low cottages ( arwās̲h̲) of the village are built of large unhewn stones without mortar. The people of Ḥod̲j̲aila are of a chestnut brown colour and resemble gipsies; they belong some to the tribe of Ḵh̲awlī, others to the Ziyādinī. Around the village many partridges are found whence its name. Moreover a kind of wild duck called k̲h̲ulal

Ḥanīfa

(898 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Lud̲j̲aim, an important branch of the great North Arabian tribe of Bakr b. Wāʾil [q. v.], consanguineous to the ʿId̲j̲l. During the Ḏj̲āhilīya they were in part heathen, in part Christian. The pagans honoured an idol īn the form of a cake of butter and honey, which they used themselves to consume in time of famine. They led a settled life in Yamāma, where they built the fortified town of Ḥad̲j̲r, which later became the capital. The Wādi ’l-ʿIrḍ and among others the following places belonged to them: al-ʿAwḳa (inhabited by the clan ʿAdī), Fais̲h̲ān …

Hud̲h̲ail

(916 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large Arab tribe, belonging to the North Arabian group. Their genealogy is Hud̲h̲ail b. Mudrika b. al-Yās b. Muḍar. They were a brother tribe of the Ḵh̲uzaina. They inhabited the mountains of Sarāt Hud̲h̲ail, which bear their name, between Mecca and Medīna and were neighbours of the Sulaim [q. v.] and Kināna [q. v.]. In the time of Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idol Suwāʿ (destroyed by ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ in 8 = 630) at Ruhāṭ and, like the Ḳurais̲h̲, Ḵh̲uzāʿa, and other tribes, also Manāt (destr…

G̲h̲alāfiḳa

(167 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ghalefka, Alafaka, the Ditio Sabaeorum of Pliny), at one time a nourishing seaport in Yemen, near Bait al-Faḳīh [q. v., i. 597b et seq.]. It was an important emporium and was known as the harbour of Zebīd. About a century before Niebuhr’s journey in Yemen the harbour of G̲h̲alāfiḳa became inaccessible through coral reefs, whereupon the rich traders of this coast-town moved to Bait al-Faḳīh, which rapidly became a flourishing commercial town. During his stay in Yemen, Niebuhr saw only a few walls, a mosque and several tombstones remaining of this once prosperous town. (J. Schleifer) Biblio…

al-Ḥabaṭ

(165 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name in South Arabia for a sacred area, which is under the protection of a saint, who is usually buried there, and is a place of refuge. No one who seeks asylum on this holy ground may be slain or attacked there. The verb ḥabaṭa in South Arabia means “to hold back” “to restrain”. The most important ḥabaṭ in South Arabia is that of Ḏj̲ebel Kadūr, which lies to the south of the village of Liḥya (Laḥya) on the Wādī Ḥabbān in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. Four saints ( mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ of the tribe of Bā Marḥūl, to whom Liḥya belongs, are buried there. This habaṭ therefore is also known as Ḥabaṭ al-Ar…

Ḥabbān

(299 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Abban), a town in South Arabia, the capital of the territory of the Upper Wāḥidī [q. v.], situated in the wādī of the same name. According to Miles it has about 4000 inhabitants, but this figure seems to be too high. The Sulṭān of the Wāḥidī dwells here in the Castle of Maṣnaʿa Ḥāḳir, which is built on a small isolated hill in the midst of the city and surrounded by a wall. The town itself has no walls and only two watchtowers at each end of it. The houses are strongly built like little fortres…

Ḥaima al-K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īya

(327 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(“Outer-Ḥaima”, in Niebuhr Heime al-Asfal “Lower-Ḥaima”), also called Ḥud̲j̲ra, a district in South Arabia, between Ḥarāz [q. v.] and Ḥaḍūr S̲h̲uʿaib [q. v.]. It is an izzle (small district) of the ḳaḍā (large district) of Manāk̲h̲a [q. v.] and stretches from Bawʿān (probably Yoān in Niebuhr, 8570 feet above sealevel, with a market) to Bait al-Mahdī. The capital is Mefḥaḳ (Möfḥaḳ in Niebuhr with ḥiṣn). North of Mefḥaḳ at Ḏj̲ebel Manār (8700 feet above sealevel) lies Sūḳ al-Ḵh̲amīs, a spur of the Ḳara al-Waʾl (“deer-antle…

Balī

(761 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Yaman group. Its genealogy is: Balī b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥāfī b. Ḳuḍāʿa. The Bahrā and Ḥaidān are given as consanguineous tribes and the Hanī and Farān as subordinate. Their dwellings were on the Syrian frontier near Taimā between the lands of the Ḏj̲uhaina and the Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām. In the time of Ptolemy the T̲h̲amūd (Θαμυδίται) inhabited their land. Of districts belonging to the Balī there are mentioned: al-Ḏj̲azl, al-Ruḥba, al-Suḳyā, Had̲j̲as̲h̲ān(?) Maʿdin Farān (called after the subordinate tribe of Farān) at the mines of the Sulaim…

Hilāl

(1,435 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Its genealogy is Hilāl b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Hawāzin…. b. Ḳais ʿAilān. During the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped at Tabāla the idol Ḵh̲alaṣa, called the Kaʿba of the Yemen, which was also worshipped by the Bad̲j̲īla, Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb and Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam. They lived in Nad̲j̲d (on the Yemen border) and were neighbours of the Sulaim [q. v.]. The following places belonged to them, al-ʿAblāʾ, Buraik (with the Ḥarra of the Banū Hilāl), Dūmī, al-Futuḳ, al-Ḳuraiḥā (the two latter were already ruined by Hamdānī’…

Ḥāmī

(183 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a coast-town in Ḥaḍramūt, about 18 miles N. E. of S̲h̲iḥr [q. v.], near Raʾs S̲h̲arma in a very picturesque and fertile district. Like Makalla and S̲h̲iḥr it belongs to the Ḳuʿaiṭī of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.] and has, as the name shows, thermal wells of the temperature of boiling water. The houses of the little town are low and built of mud; in the centre of the town and on the shore there are two important ḥiṣn. The inhabitants are mainly fishermen; and their number was estimated by Capt. Haines at 500 in 1839. Behind the town lie thick palmgroves and fields with luxurious crops of Indian corn. (J. Schleife…

Bakr

(2,801 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Wāʾil, a great Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy (omitting one or two unimportant links) is: Bakr b. Wāʾil b. Ḳāsiṭ b. Hinb b. Asad ¶ b. Rabīʿa b. Nizār b. Maʿadd. Allied tribes were amongst others the Tag̲h̲lib and Anz, subordinate tribes the Jas̲h̲kur, Badam, al-Ḥārit̲h̲, Ḏj̲us̲h̲m and ʿAlī. Other important subordinate tribes were the Ḏh̲uhl, ʿId̲j̲l, Ḥanīfa, Ḳais and S̲h̲aibān. They lived in the Tihāma of Yaman, the Yamāma and Baḥrain as far as the borders of Mesopotamia. We find them here in the time of the Caliphs Ab…

al-Ḥodaida

(427 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hodáde, Hadída), a seaport in Arabia, on the Red Sea about no miles N.N.W. of Mok̲h̲a [q. v.], the most important port for the coffee trade in Yemen and a landingplace for pilgrims to Mecca from Central Africa. It is under the protection of a patron saint, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣadīḳ, whose festival is celebrated on the fifteenth day of the month S̲h̲aʿbān. In the time of Niebuhr and Seetzen, al-Ḥodaida belonged to the Imām of Ṣanʿāʾ. In 183 7 Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a was commander in the town. Since 1899, al-Ḥod…

al-Darʿīya

(421 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Dreyeh, Deraya, Daraaije, or Drahia) a town in the district of al-ʿĀriḍ in the Nad̲j̲d country in Arabia, on the ¶ caravan route from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf. It was handsomely built of stone and lay at the foot of high hills in a narrow valley, and a little wādī (W. Ḥanīfa) which was usually dry in summer ran through it. In addition to a large and several smaller mosques it had many madrasas. It lay in a very fertile neighbourhood and was surrounded by extensive wheat, barley and milletfields and rich orchards with extensive date-palm g…

Ḥāyil

(817 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Hāyel, Haīl, Hāeyl), the capital of the land of Ḏj̲ebel-S̲h̲ammar [q. v.] in western Ned̲j̲d in the centre of a long plain called Sāhila al-Ḵh̲ammashīya, which lies between the parallel ranges of Ad̲j̲aʾ (M’nīf) and Salmā (Fittī) about 5000 feet about the level of the sea. The town, which is one of the main stations on the route for Persian pilgrims to Mecca, is surrounded by walls about 20 feet high and round and square towers. It is divided into eleven quarters and has a large mosque, a fort…

Ḥais

(477 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Häs, Hēs),a town in South Arabia, at the foot of the Ḏj̲ebel Raʾs at the entrance to a valley about five miles S. E. of Zabīd. [q. v.]. In 1842 it consisted of 500 houses of earth and stone, 250 round huts, an old castle with a garrison of 300 men, 21 mosques, including one large one which was already falling into ruins, 10 coffee-houses and inns, several coffee-mills and potteries, the latter of which supplied the whole of the Yemen, a few dye-works and indigo factories, and numbered 2000 men c…
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