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Ḏj̲aʿda

(351 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Kaʿb, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is: Ḏj̲aʿda b. Kaʿb b. Rabīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Hawāzin. The Ḳus̲h̲air and ʿUḳail were closely related tribes. The poet Nābig̲h̲a (al-Ḏj̲aʿdī) traces his descent from the Ḏj̲aʿda b. Kaʿb. They inhabited the district of Falad̲j̲ in the territory of Yamāma. Of places, which belonged to them, there are mentioned, amongst others: Ukma (a large fortified town on the Wādī of the same name, with a much frequented market, many wells, bazaars and …

Ḥūla

(75 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a town in Arabia, in the province of Sedeyr (Ṣudair) in Nad̲j̲d, north of Ḥuraimila [q. v.]. The inhabitants are partly tradesmen and partly agriculturists. Its trade and prosperity has markedly increased under Wahhābī rule. During Palgrave’s stay in Nad̲j̲d, Ḥūla was one of the most flourishing places in Sedeyr. The town is surrounded by walls. (J. Schleifer) Bibliography Palgrave, A Narrative of a Year’s Journey in Arabia (London 1865), i. 338 sq.

ʿĪnāt

(234 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a town in Ḥaḍramūt, south east of Tarīm, on the wādī of the same name. The family of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Bakr, the only Saiyid family in Ḥaḍramūt to bear arms, lives here. It has two munṣib’s of whom one is chief of the Banū Thanna [see ḥaḍramawt]. In the eighties of last century there lived in ʿĪnāt the greatest saint of Ḥaḍramūt, Saiyid Muhsin b. Sālim, of the family of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Bakr, to whom people made pilgrimages from the whole country and from more distant lands, such as the Indian Archipelago, on account of the miracles performed b…

al-Ḥāḍina

(144 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a small independent territory in South Arabia, north of the Wāḥidī. It is one of the most interesting and most fertile territories in South Arabia. The products of the soil, which is artificially irrigated by canals from the Wādī ʿAbadān are hawīr (indigo), d̲h̲ura (a kind of maize) and duk̲h̲n (millet). Al-Ḥāḍina is inhabited by the tribe al-Ḵh̲alīfa, which claims descent from the Hilāl [q. v.]. On the migration of the Hilāl they remained in South Arabia, whence ¶ their name Ḵh̲alīfa. They number about 1000 fighting men and are ruled by an ʿAḳīl whose residence is in th…

Dat̲h̲īna

(441 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia, lying to the west of the land of the ʿAwāliḳ [q. v., p. 514] in the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr. It is a fairly mountainous country with a dry climate, as a rule. The soil is fertile only in the N. E. where it produces tobacco, wheat and maize. The main wādīs are: the very fertile Wādī Marrān (Mirān) and the Wādī al-Ḍura. Dat̲h̲īna is inhabited by two large tribes, the main branch, the Ahl um-Saʿīdī (Ahl al-Saʿīdī) and the ʿÖlah (al-ʿUlah, ʿUlah al-Kawr and ʿUlah al-Baḥr). The chief town is Blad Ahl um-Saʿīdī with several hundred inha…

G̲h̲ifār

(218 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy is: G̲h̲ifār b. Mulaik b. Ḍamra b. Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt b. Kināna; they were closely allied to the Hud̲h̲ail. They lived in the Hid̲j̲āz. The following places belonged to them: Aḍāʾa (near Mecca), Baʿāl (near ʿUsfān, also given as a hill), S̲h̲adak̲h̲ (in common with the Uslum), G̲h̲aiḳa, Waddān (both the latter between Mecca and Medīna), al-Tanādib and the hill of Musliḥ. In the year 8 (629) the G̲h̲ifār adopted Islām. In the same year they took part in the conquest of Mecca along with the Muzai…

ʿAwd̲h̲illa

(208 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(sing. ʿAwd̲h̲alī, pl. ʿAwād̲h̲ila, in Hamdānī, Banū Awd; according to Sprenger, Die alte Geogr. Arabiens, p. 206, 269, identical with the Оὐδηνοι of Ptolemy and the Autaridae of Pliny), a South Arabian tribe. Their territory, lying between the land of the Yāfiʿa and that of the ʿAwāliḳ, is for the most part highland and crossed by a great range, the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr (Kor) often also called Ẓāhir (Ḍaher). Of the Wādīs that rise in the Ḏj̲ebel Kawr the W. Yerāmīs (Jerames) is the best watered. The climate is tropi…

G̲h̲assān

(1,672 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(G̲h̲assānids), an Arab dynasty in Syria, of Yamanī origin. They were monophysite Christians and were under the suzerainty of the Byzantine Emperors, whose frontiers they had to defend against the Fersians and their vassals, the Lak̲h̲mids of Ḥīra. Their rule extended approximately over the province of Arabia (roughly the Ḥawrān district and Balḳāʾ), Phoenicia ad Libanum, Palestina Prima and Secunda. In contrast co their relatives and natural enemies, the Lak̲h̲mids, to whom they were far superi…

Ḥanẓala

(525 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Mālik, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī group. Its genealogy is Ḥanẓala b. Mālik b. Zaid Manāt b. Tamīm. Among its more important subdivisions were the Barād̲j̲im (to which the poet Farazdaḳ belonged), Dārim and Yarbūʿ. The poet ʿAlḳama b. ʿAbada traced his descent from the Hanẓala. They dwelled between the two sandhills of Ḏj̲urād and Marrūt near Ḥimā Ḍarīya in Yamāma. The villages of al-Ṣammān (with many wells, cisterns and irrigation works), al-Raḳmatān, the Wādīs al-G̲h̲umain and al-ʿIrḳ, the lakes Ḵh̲abī (Wüstenfeld, Register, p. 203, probably by error, Ḏj̲abī) and…

Faḍlī

(769 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Foḍlī, Futhalī), the dynastie name of a group of tribes in South Arabia. Besides this name we also find ʿOt̲h̲mānī (ʿUt̲h̲mānī), as the founder of the dynasty, Faḍl, is said to have been of Turkish origin. They are a branch of the Yāfiʿ and formerly bore their name also. The land of the Faḍlī lies between 45° 10′ and 46° 30′ E. Lat. (Greenw.) and has an breadth of 20—30 miles. It is bounded on the south by the Arabian Sea, in the west by Laḥed̲j̲, in the north by Yāfiʿ and in the east by the land of the ʿAwd̲h̲illa and Dat̲h̲īna. In the west …

Ḥalī

(273 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Haly, Hhaly), a town in Arabia, lying to the south of Ḳonfude on the border between the Ḥid̲j̲āz and Yemen on the Wādī ʿAs̲h̲r, with the small harbour of Marsā Ḥalī and the mountain spur of Raʾs Ḥalī (the latter according to Niebuhr in N. Lat. 18° 36′). Ibn Baṭūṭa, who visited the town on his journey to Yemen in 1331 a. d., gives it the name Ḥalī b. Yaʿḳūb and ¶ describes it as a flourishing seaport with fine buildings and a splendid mosque. The Sulṭān, who was at that time ruling the town, belonged to the Kināna [q. v.] and was a gifted poet and a model of Arabia…

Ḥarb

(454 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a powerful Arab tribe of Yemenī origin in the Ḥid̲j̲āz between Mecca and Medīna. They are divided into two great bodies, the Banū Sālem and B. Moṣrūḥ. To the B. Salem belong amongst other clans, al-Ḥamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Welad Selīm, Tamīm (not the celebrated great tribe of this name), Muzaina, al-Hwāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), and Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); to the Moṣrūḥ, amongst others; Saʿdī (Saʿadī), Laḥabba (all robbers of pilgrims), Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-Ḏj̲ahm, Banū Ḥasseyn (all As̲h̲rāf), and Banū ʿAmr. Doughty gives amongst others the following villages …

Ḥarīb

(787 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a district in South Arabia, about two days’ journey east of Maʾrib [q. v.] probably identical with the Caripeta of Pliny, the place from which the Roman general Aelius Gallus on his expedition to Arabia Felix began his retreat to the coast. Ḥarīb, a centre of ancient Arab civilisation, is traversed by a large wādī, the Wādī ʿAin, which receives on its left bank two small wādīs, the Wādī Mukbal and Wādī Ablaḥ. Two hours’ journey before reaching Wādī ʿAin rises Mount Mablaḳa, to which a series o…

al-Ḥarīḳ

(251 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Haryk), a province in Ned̲j̲d in the South of Yamāma lying on the edge of the great desert (Dahnā). The mountain range of this very warm district is said by Palgrave to be about 60—70 miles long. Ḥūta is the most important place in the country. During the Wahhābī wars after the conquest of Darʿīya [q. v.] Ḥarīḳ was subdued by Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. After the Wahhābīs had regained Ned̲j̲d and the Ḥid̲j̲āz, a rebellion broke out against the chief ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿūd in Ḥarīḳ as in the adjoining Yamā…

Ḥāsik

(486 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hasek), a town in the Mahra country [q. v.], east of Mirbāṭ [q. v.] in 17° 21′ N. Lat. and 55° 23′ E. Long., at the foot of the high mountain of Nūs (Lūs), the ’Ασίχων of the Periplus Maris Erythraei. Before the town lies the “bay of herbs” (Ḏj̲ūn al-Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲), the bay of Ḥāsik (Ra’s Ḥāsik), also called Kurya and Murya Bay after the two islands lying opposite (Ḵh̲aryān and Maryān in Idrīsī). Idrīsī describes Ḥāsik as a small fortified town four days east of Mirbāṭ, with many inhabitants, who are fishermen. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa landed here …

Ḥufās̲h̲

(216 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a high mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the al-Maṣāniʿ range of the Sarāt group, dn the Wādī Surdud near Ḥarāz [q. v.]. It is often mentioned by Hamdānī in his ¶ Ḏj̲azīra, along with the adjacent large mountain of Milḥān (called after the Ḥimyar Milḥān b. ʿAwf b. Mālik) the real name of which was Rais̲h̲ān. Not far from the latter, (which in Hamdānī’s time was said to possess no fewer than ninety-nine springs and had a large mosque [called Masd̲j̲id S̲h̲āhir] on its summit, S̲h̲āhir), there lies a treasure, according to…

al-Ḥid̲j̲r

(642 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Had̲j̲er, Hadscher, Hödscher, al-Hhegr in Ritter) a town in Arabia, a day’s journey from Wādi ’l-Ḳura [q. v.] south of Taima [q. v.] identical with the ancient commercial town of ῞Εγρα in Ptolemy and Egra in Pliny. The town no longer exists. At present the name al-Ḥid̲j̲r is given by the Bedouins to the flat valley between Mabrak al-Nāḳa (Mazḥam) and Bīr al-G̲h̲anam which stretches for several miles and has a fertile soil with many wells at which numerous Bedouins encamp with their herds. Two road…

al-Ḥawṭa

(267 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hōta), a town in South Arabia in the land of the Upper Wāḥidī [q. v.] on the Wādī ʿAmaḳīn. It has over 1000 inhabitants who belong for the most part to the Mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ of the family of Muḥammad b. ʿUmar, who is said to be descended from ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī (flourished in the vith century), about 100 fortresslike houses and in addition to a large mosque has seven smaller ones, a large market with shops, many looms and a considerable cotton industry. Al-Ḥāwṭā is a free, independent town and pays no taxes. Next to ʿĪnāt [q. v.] it is the most ¶ important place of refuge in South Arabia. T…

Ḏh̲amār

(420 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(d̲h̲imār, damar, the of the ¶ Sabaean inscriptions), a district ( mik̲h̲lāf) and town in South Arabia, to the south of Ṣanʿā. The district of Ḏh̲amār was very fertile and had rich cornfields, splendid gardens and many ancient citadels and palaces. On account of its fertitily it was called the Miṣr of Yaman. The horses of Ḏh̲amār were famed throughout Yaman for their noble pedigree. Amongst places which are mentioned as belonging to the district of Ḏh̲amār are the following: Aḍraʿa, Balad ʿAns, Baraddūn, al-Darb, Dalān and Ḏh̲amūrān (the women of these two pl…

Barahūt

(521 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Balahūt, also written Burhūt), a Wādī in Ḥaḍramawt, on the verge of which, at the foot of a volcanic mountain, is the famous Biʾr Barahūt, the spring of Barahūt. According to the native accounts this is a fissure 33 feet long by 25 broad, at its entrance filled with burning sulphur. The stink of the sulphur and the bubbling of the spring (the noise of the volcano?) have given rise to the story that the souls of unbelievers predestined to hell are waiting here and cry out in the night time: “O Duma! O Duma!” in tones of woe. There used to be a proverb, as Hamdānī tells us in his Ḏj̲azīra among proverbial…
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