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al-Ḥabaṭ

(165 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name in South Arabia for a sacred area, which is under the protection of a saint, who is usually buried there, and is a place of refuge. No one who seeks asylum on this holy ground may be slain or attacked there. The verb ḥabaṭa in South Arabia means “to hold back” “to restrain”. The most important ḥabaṭ in South Arabia is that of Ḏj̲ebel Kadūr, which lies to the south of the village of Liḥya (Laḥya) on the Wādī Ḥabbān in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. Four saints ( mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ of the tribe of Bā Marḥūl, to whom Liḥya belongs, are buried there. This habaṭ therefore is also known as Ḥabaṭ al-Ar…

Ḥabbān

(299 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Abban), a town in South Arabia, the capital of the territory of the Upper Wāḥidī [q. v.], situated in the wādī of the same name. According to Miles it has about 4000 inhabitants, but this figure seems to be too high. The Sulṭān of the Wāḥidī dwells here in the Castle of Maṣnaʿa Ḥāḳir, which is built on a small isolated hill in the midst of the city and surrounded by a wall. The town itself has no walls and only two watchtowers at each end of it. The houses are strongly built like little fortres…

Ḥaima al-K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īya

(327 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(“Outer-Ḥaima”, in Niebuhr Heime al-Asfal “Lower-Ḥaima”), also called Ḥud̲j̲ra, a district in South Arabia, between Ḥarāz [q. v.] and Ḥaḍūr S̲h̲uʿaib [q. v.]. It is an izzle (small district) of the ḳaḍā (large district) of Manāk̲h̲a [q. v.] and stretches from Bawʿān (probably Yoān in Niebuhr, 8570 feet above sealevel, with a market) to Bait al-Mahdī. The capital is Mefḥaḳ (Möfḥaḳ in Niebuhr with ḥiṣn). North of Mefḥaḳ at Ḏj̲ebel Manār (8700 feet above sealevel) lies Sūḳ al-Ḵh̲amīs, a spur of the Ḳara al-Waʾl (“deer-antle…

Balī

(761 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Yaman group. Its genealogy is: Balī b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥāfī b. Ḳuḍāʿa. The Bahrā and Ḥaidān are given as consanguineous tribes and the Hanī and Farān as subordinate. Their dwellings were on the Syrian frontier near Taimā between the lands of the Ḏj̲uhaina and the Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām. In the time of Ptolemy the T̲h̲amūd (Θαμυδίται) inhabited their land. Of districts belonging to the Balī there are mentioned: al-Ḏj̲azl, al-Ruḥba, al-Suḳyā, Had̲j̲as̲h̲ān(?) Maʿdin Farān (called after the subordinate tribe of Farān) at the mines of the Sulaim…

Hilāl

(1,435 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Its genealogy is Hilāl b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Hawāzin…. b. Ḳais ʿAilān. During the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped at Tabāla the idol Ḵh̲alaṣa, called the Kaʿba of the Yemen, which was also worshipped by the Bad̲j̲īla, Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kaʿb and Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam. They lived in Nad̲j̲d (on the Yemen border) and were neighbours of the Sulaim [q. v.]. The following places belonged to them, al-ʿAblāʾ, Buraik (with the Ḥarra of the Banū Hilāl), Dūmī, al-Futuḳ, al-Ḳuraiḥā (the two latter were already ruined by Hamdānī’…

Ḥāmī

(183 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a coast-town in Ḥaḍramūt, about 18 miles N. E. of S̲h̲iḥr [q. v.], near Raʾs S̲h̲arma in a very picturesque and fertile district. Like Makalla and S̲h̲iḥr it belongs to the Ḳuʿaiṭī of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.] and has, as the name shows, thermal wells of the temperature of boiling water. The houses of the little town are low and built of mud; in the centre of the town and on the shore there are two important ḥiṣn. The inhabitants are mainly fishermen; and their number was estimated by Capt. Haines at 500 in 1839. Behind the town lie thick palmgroves and fields with luxurious crops of Indian corn. (J. Schleife…

Bakr

(2,801 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Wāʾil, a great Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddī (Ismāʿīlī) group. Their genealogy (omitting one or two unimportant links) is: Bakr b. Wāʾil b. Ḳāsiṭ b. Hinb b. Asad ¶ b. Rabīʿa b. Nizār b. Maʿadd. Allied tribes were amongst others the Tag̲h̲lib and Anz, subordinate tribes the Jas̲h̲kur, Badam, al-Ḥārit̲h̲, Ḏj̲us̲h̲m and ʿAlī. Other important subordinate tribes were the Ḏh̲uhl, ʿId̲j̲l, Ḥanīfa, Ḳais and S̲h̲aibān. They lived in the Tihāma of Yaman, the Yamāma and Baḥrain as far as the borders of Mesopotamia. We find them here in the time of the Caliphs Ab…

al-Ḥodaida

(427 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Hodáde, Hadída), a seaport in Arabia, on the Red Sea about no miles N.N.W. of Mok̲h̲a [q. v.], the most important port for the coffee trade in Yemen and a landingplace for pilgrims to Mecca from Central Africa. It is under the protection of a patron saint, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣadīḳ, whose festival is celebrated on the fifteenth day of the month S̲h̲aʿbān. In the time of Niebuhr and Seetzen, al-Ḥodaida belonged to the Imām of Ṣanʿāʾ. In 183 7 Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a was commander in the town. Since 1899, al-Ḥod…

al-Darʿīya

(421 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Dreyeh, Deraya, Daraaije, or Drahia) a town in the district of al-ʿĀriḍ in the Nad̲j̲d country in Arabia, on the ¶ caravan route from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf. It was handsomely built of stone and lay at the foot of high hills in a narrow valley, and a little wādī (W. Ḥanīfa) which was usually dry in summer ran through it. In addition to a large and several smaller mosques it had many madrasas. It lay in a very fertile neighbourhood and was surrounded by extensive wheat, barley and milletfields and rich orchards with extensive date-palm g…

Ḥāyil

(817 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(al-Hāyel, Haīl, Hāeyl), the capital of the land of Ḏj̲ebel-S̲h̲ammar [q. v.] in western Ned̲j̲d in the centre of a long plain called Sāhila al-Ḵh̲ammashīya, which lies between the parallel ranges of Ad̲j̲aʾ (M’nīf) and Salmā (Fittī) about 5000 feet about the level of the sea. The town, which is one of the main stations on the route for Persian pilgrims to Mecca, is surrounded by walls about 20 feet high and round and square towers. It is divided into eleven quarters and has a large mosque, a fort…

Ḥais

(477 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Häs, Hēs),a town in South Arabia, at the foot of the Ḏj̲ebel Raʾs at the entrance to a valley about five miles S. E. of Zabīd. [q. v.]. In 1842 it consisted of 500 houses of earth and stone, 250 round huts, an old castle with a garrison of 300 men, 21 mosques, including one large one which was already falling into ruins, 10 coffee-houses and inns, several coffee-mills and potteries, the latter of which supplied the whole of the Yemen, a few dye-works and indigo factories, and numbered 2000 men c…

Hawāzin

(1,278 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a large North Arabian tribe. Their genealogy is Hawāzin b. Manṣūr b, ʿIkrima b. Ḵh̲aṣafa b. Ḳais Ailān b. Muḍar. Among the important clans of the Hawāzin may be mentioned the T̲h̲aḳīf in Ṭāʾif northeast of Mecca where there is still a powerful tribe of them, the ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa [q. v.], the Ḏj̲us̲h̲am, the Saʿd b. Bakr ¶ (Ḥalīma b. Abī Ḏh̲uwaib, the nurse of the Prophet, was descended from them) and Hilāl. They were of the same stock as the Sulaim. During the Ḏj̲āhiliya they worshipped the idol Ḏj̲ihār in ʿUkāẓ, the large and much frequented market o…

Ḥawra

(198 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥōra), a town in Ḥaḍramūt, N. E. of Has̲h̲arēn [q. v.] on the Ḏj̲ebel of the same name. The little Wādī Ḥōra flows past it, running for the earlier part of its course parallel to the large Wādī ʿAin (see ḥaḍramawt, p. 208a) and then joining it. At the upper end of the town there is a large ḥiṣn with seven stories, flanked by corner towers, which commands the town. Here the ḥākim resides; he is appointed by the Ḳuʿaiṭīs of S̲h̲ibām [q. v.], to whom the town belongs. Ḥawra possesses a small bazaar and two mosques and is surrounded by gardens and fields,…

Ḥaḍūr

(704 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Ḥadūr Nabī [Nebbi] S̲h̲uʿaib), a mountain in South Arabia, belonging to the Sarāt group of Alhān, to the west of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] between the Wādī Sahām and the Wādī Surdud near the Ḥarāz range [q. v.], from which it was separated in Hamdānī’s time by the Balad al-Ak̲h̲rūd̲j̲ (now Ḥaima [q. v.]) inhabited by the Ṣulaiḥ (a branch of the Ḥamdān). The name Ḥaḍūr is derived from Ḥaḍūr b. ʿAdī b. Mālik, an ancestor of the prophet S̲h̲uʿaib b. Mahdam, mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (cf. Sūra vii. 83 et seq. and xi. 85 et seo.) who was sent to preach and to warn his people on Mount Ḥaḍūr and was thereupon slain by them. The…

Hamdān

(758 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
( of the South Arabian inscriptions), a large Arab tribe, belonging to the Yemen group. Their genealogy is Hamdān (Awsala) b. Mālik b. Zaid b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-Ḵh̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zaid b. Kahlān. Their land, the Balad Hamdān, a centre of civilization in ancient Arabia, was five days’ journey in length and breadth and lay to the north of Ṣanʿā [q. v.] it stretched eastwards as far as Maʾrib [q. v.] and Nad̲j̲rān [q. v.], northwards to Ṣaʿda [q. v.] almost up to the desert and westwards to the coast (Abū Arīs̲h̲). It was divid…

Ḍibāb

(274 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, an Arab tribe, belonging to the Maʿaddite group. They were the descendants of Muʿāwiya b. Kilāb, who was called al-Ḍibāb because of three of his sons (Ḍibāb, Ḍabb und Muḍibb). Their genealogy is: Muʿāwiya b. Kilāb b. Rabīʿa b. ʿAmr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr b. Ilawāzin. They dwelled in the district of Ḥima Ḍarīya in the Nad̲j̲d territory. The following settlements of the Ḍibāb are mentioned: Ḏj̲azʿ Banī Kūz, Dāra Ḏj̲uld̲j̲ul and Ṭulūḥ; mountains: Ak̲h̲zum, al-Ḏj̲aws̲h̲anīya, Ḏh̲āt Ārām, al-Yaḥmūm (a large black hill), Kabs̲h̲a (with Dāra al-Kabas̲h…

Aḳārib

(160 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Sing. ʿAḳrabī; according to Sprenger, Die alte Geographie Arabiens p. 80, identical with the Agraei of Pliny), a South-Arabian tribe in the neighbourhood of ʿAden. Their territory, which is very small (only about 2—3 square miles), is crossed by the lower part of the river of Laḥed̲j̲ [q. v.], which here is nearly always dry. As rain is also lacking, the soil is barren and yields but little fruit. The chief town is Biʾr Aḥmed, with some hundred inhabitants and the castle of the Sultan, who resides ther…

G̲h̲anī

(337 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
b. Aʿṣur, a tribe in North Arabia, a branch of the Ḳais b. ʿAilān and related to the G̲h̲kṭafān [q. v., p. 144b et seq.]. They lived around Ḥimā Ḍarīya in Nad̲j̲d and were neighbours of the Ṭaiy with whom they were constantly at feud. In the time of the Ḏj̲āhilīya they worshipped the idols al-Lāt, Manāt and al-ʿUzzā, all of whom are mentioned in the Ḳorʾān (Sūra liii. 19, 20). The great pre-Islāmic poet Ṭufail b. ʿAwf, called Ṭufail al-Ḵh̲ail (on account of his skill in depicting the horse) belonged to the G̲h̲anī. Among the settlements of the G̲h̲anī were: Ayhab, Awʿāl, Ad̲h̲ruʿāt, Baṭn…

al-Ḥawṭa

(120 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name given in South Arabia to a district which is considered holy and regarded as a place of refuge. The substantive al-ḥawṭa denotes a place surrounded by a wall, then a place under the protection of a saint,’ who is buried there. The most important Ḥawṭa in South Arabia is that at ʿĪnāt (ʿAināt [q. v.] in Ḥaḍramūt, where the famous S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Munṣab Bū Bakr b. Sālim is buried. The second in importance is the Ḥawṭa in the land of the Wāḥidī [q. v.]. The name Ḥawṭa is also borne by the capital of the land of the…

Hid̲j̲ra

(160 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, the name of a village (indeed of several) in South Arabia which is exclusively inhabited by Sāda or As̲h̲rāf (“lords”, “notables”, descendants of the Prophet) and is considered sacrosanct. These villages (e. g. Ḥaifa in Arḥab [cf. ḥās̲h̲id and bakīl] may not be overrun in war. The members of the Hid̲j̲ra, who are chiefly judges ( ḳuḍāt) and jurists ( fuḳahāʾ) receive from the tribe to which they belong a certificate of their membership of the Hid̲j̲ra and enjoy great esteem, which surpasses that of a s̲h̲aik̲h̲. Individual members are. also found scatte…
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