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Toynbee, Arnold Joseph

(1,277 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
British historian. Born London 14. 4. 1889, died York 22. 10. 1975. Attended Winchester College. Studied history at Heidelberg and Balliol College, Oxford. Worked for the British Foreign Office during World War I (War Propaganda Bureau; Political Intelligence Department) and World War II (Foreign Research and Press Service). Took part in the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919 as a Near Eastern specialist. 1919–1924 Koraës Prof. of Modern Greek and Byzantine History, Language and Literature at K…

Meiggs, Russell

(662 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
British ancient historian and epigraphist. Born London 20. 10. 1902, died Garsington (Oxford) 24. 6. 1989. Studied at Keble College, Oxford from 1921, 1925 at the British School in Rome. 1926/27 teaching at Christ’s Hospital; from 1928 tutor, from 1930 fellow and 1935–1939 dean of Keble College; 1939–1970 fellow in ancient history at Balliol College, Oxford, of which he was Master 1945–1969. During World War II, worked procuring timber for the Ministry of Supply. 1960, then again 1974, 1976 and …

Roussel, Pierre

(702 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
French ancient historian and epigraphist. Born Nancy 23. 2. 1881, died Paris 1. 10. 1945. Graduated in 1901 from the École normale supérieure, then working until 1910 at the École française d’Athènes. There, from 1906, working under the direction of Maurice Holleaux on the inscriptions of Delos. 1917 Thèse de doctorat with two dissertations concerning Delos [2]; [3]. 1915–1918 teaching at Lycée Janson de Sailly, Paris; 1918 prof. at Univ. of Bordeaux, 1919–1925 at Univ. of Strasbourg, 1936–1945 at Sorbonne. 1925–1935 director of the École française d’Athènes. From 1937 member of the Ac…

Lippold, Adolf

(418 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
German ancient historian. Born Erlangen 23. 10. 1926, died Regensburg 11. 6. 2005. Son of the archaeologist Georg Lippold. Studied history, classical philology and philosophy at Univs. of Erlangen and Göttingen; 1952 doctorate at Erlangen with Johannes Straub. From 1953, academic councillor at the Univ. of Bonn, habil. there 1960. 1968–1994 prof. ord. in ancient history at Univ. of Regensburg (1980 refused appointment to Univ. of Bonn). Works After his doctorate with a diss. on Orosius’ portrayal of the barbarians [1], L. followed the work on prosopography and s…

Tarn, William Woodthorpe

(709 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
British ancient historian and writer. Born London 26. 2. 1869, died Muirtown, Scotland, 7. 11. 1957. School at Eton (1882–1888); studied at Trinity College, Cambridge (1888–1892), especially Greek philosophy with Henry Jackson. Thereafter professional training before working as a barrister in London 1894–1905. After World War I, returned to Scotland to work as a private scholar following serious illness, living at Muirtown (Inverness). During the war worked for the British War Office in Whitehal…

Niese, Benedictus

(580 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
German classical philologist and ancient historian. Born Jürgen Anton Benedictus N. at Burg (Fehmarn) 24. 11. 1849, died Halle 1. 2. 1910. Attended cathedral school in Schleswig; from 1867 studied classical philology at Kiel (especially with Alfred von Gutschmid and Otto Ribbeck), spending the summer semester 1870 at the Univ. of Bonn. 1870/71 volunteer in Franco-Prussian War. Doctorate 1872 at Kiel. 1873 schoolteacher at Flensburg; 1873–1876 stay in Italy and Rome (preparing his edition of Jose…

Taylor, Lily Ross

(554 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
American ancient historian. Born Auburn, Alabama, 12. 8. 1886, died Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, 18. 11. 1969. 1902–1906 studied Roman history at Univ. of Wisconsin in Madison. From 1906 graduate studies at Bryn Mawr College, 1909/10 at the American Academy in Rome. Doctorate 1912 at Bryn Mawr College with Tenney Frank, thesis on cults at Ostia [1]. 1912–1927 lecturer, then prof. of Latin at Vassar College (Poughkeepsie, New York); 1917 first female member of the American Academy in Rome. 1927–1952 …

Hertzberg, Gustav Friedrich

(601 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
German ancient historian. Born Halle an der Saale 19. 6. 1826, died there 16. 11. 1907. School at Pädagogium of the Franckesche Stiftungen, 1843 studied history, classical philology, for a time also theology and Oriental languages at Univs. of Halle and Leipzig, doctorate Halle 1848. Staatsexamen (teaching certificate) 1850, then assistant teacher at Pädagogium of the Franckesche Stiftungen. 1851 habil. in ancient history at Univ. of Halle. Member of the National Liberal Party; 1858–1860 editor of the Preussisches Wochenblatt. 1860 adjunct prof. of ancient history at Univ…

Robert, Louis

(793 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
French ancient historian, epigraphist and numismatist. Born Laurière (Limousin) 15. 2. 1904, died Paris 31. 5. 1985. While still at school in 1921/22, he attended the public lectures given by Paul Foucart at the Collège de France, and from 1923 also the epigraphy lectures of Maurice Holleaux (as whose student R. later saw himself [1. 7 f., 418]) at the Sorbonne. From 1924 studied at École normale supérieure, Paris. 1927 member of the École française d’Athènes; from 1932 Directeur d’études at the École pratique des hautes études (chair of ‘geographical history of the Hellenic worl…

Edelstein, Ludwig

(845 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
German-American philologist and historian of medicine. Born Berlin 23. 4. 1902, died New York 16. 8. 1965. 1912–1924 studied classical philology and philosophy at the Univ. of Berlin, especially with Werner Jaeger and Eduard Spranger; continued studies at Heidelberg, with Karl Jaspers, Otto Regenbogen and Alfred Weber; doctorate there 1929. [1]. 1930–1932 assistant at Institute for the History of Medicine, Univ. of Berlin. Teaching contract there 1933, which E. then lost after the National Socia…

Eder, Walter

(481 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
German ancient historian. Born Winterberg 2. 4. 1941, died Berlin 16. 7. 2009. Studied classical philology and history at Univ. of Munich; 1966–1970 research assistant, 1969 doctorate at Univ. of Munich; 1970 academic councillor there. 1971 named prof. of ancient history at Freie Univ. Berlin; 1978 habil. there; 1992 appointed to Ruhr-Univ. Bochum; 2006 emeritus. Works and influence In his diss. on repetundae proceedings before Sulla [1], E. followed the modern school of legal history founded by Wolfgang Kunkel that called into question Theodor Mommsen’s s…

Wolff, Hans Julius

(723 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
German-American legal historian and papyrologist. Born Berlin 27. 8. 1902, died Freiburg 23. 8. 1983. Studied ancient history, classical philology and law at the Univs. of Berlin and Rostock. 1929 Assessorexamen, then proofreading assistant to Wolfgang Kunkel in Göttingen. 1930/31 and 1933–1935 worked on Thesaurus Linguae Latinae in Munich. 1932 law degree, then worked in the judiciary until his dismissal in 1933. 1935 emigrated to Panama, where he was prof. of Roman and Panamanian law at the Univ. of Panama. From 1939 in the United States,…

Kromayer, Johannes

(555 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
German ancient historian. Born Stralsund 31. 7. 1859, died Berlin 23. 9. 1934. Studied classical philology and ancient history at Jena from 1878, then at Strasbourg (with Heinrich Nissen et al.) from 1880. Doctorate 1883, Staatsexamen 1884. Thereafter working as schoolteacher at Thann (Alsace); 1888 study trip to Italy, Greece and Asia Minor. 1890–1893 schoolteacher at Metz, 1893–1900 at Strasbourg; 1898 habil. at Strasbourg. 1900 study trip to central and northern Greece. From 1901 prof. ext., from 1903 prof. ord. in ancient his…

Jullian, Camille

(560 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
French ancient historian. Born to Protestantparents in Marseille, 15. 3. 1859, died Paris 12. 12. 1933. Studied from 1877 at the Paris École normale supérieure; teachings Paul Vidal de la Blache, Numa D. Fustel de Coulanges (whose works J. later edited), Gaston Boissier and Ernest Desjardins. 1880 placed first in history in competition for the agrégation. 1880–1882 member of the École française de Rome. Studied at Berlin, attending Theodor Mommsen’s epigraphy classes. 1883 Thèse de doctorat [1]; [2], then teaching work at Univ. of Bordeaux. 1886 prof. of Greek and Lati…

Hadas, Moses

(588 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
American classical philologist. Born Atlanta Georgia 25. 6. 1900 (family Jewish Russian immigrants), died Aspen Colorado 17. 8. 1966. School at Atlanta; studied classics at Emory Univ. (BA 1922); rabbinical training to 1926 at Jewish Theological Seminary, Columbia Univ., New York. Also continued classical studies at Columbia Univ., where he took MA 1925 and doctorate 1930 (diss. on Sextus Pompeius [2]). Lecturer in ancient languages at Columbia from 1925, at Cincinnati 1928–1930. Worked for Offi…

Moreau, Jacques

(656 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
Belgian ancient historian. Born Lodelinsart (Belgium) 12. 9. 1918, died Ankara 23. 9. 1961, in a plane crash that also killed Hans Schaefer, Hans-Hermann Rohrbach, Peter Sattler, Leo Teutsch and others [15. 843]; [17. 16–19]). 1935–1939 studied classical philology, history and ancient Near Eastern languages at Univ. Libre in Brussels, teachers including Henri Grégoire, Roger Goossens and Claire Préaux. Voluntary assistant at Brussels Institut de philologie et d’histoire orientales et slaves from 1939 with Grégoire, while also teaching at school. Military service i…

Grégoire, Henri

(1,412 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
Belgian Byzantine scholar. Born Huy 21. 3. 1881, died Rosières (Brussels) 28. 9. 1964. Studied from 1898 at the Univ. of Liège, teachers including Léon Parmentier and Charles Michel, 1901 Docteur en philosophie et lettres. 1902/3 continued studies at Munich with Karl Krumbacher and in Berlin with Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorf and Adolf von Harnack; 1903/04 in Paris. Appointed in 1904 by his uncle Edmond Janssens, chairman of the Congo Commission of the King of the Belgians, as secretary of that commission, with the task of i…

Enmann, Alexander

(528 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
Baltic German ancient historian. Born Pernau (Livonia, Russian Empire; now Pärnu, Estonia) 20. 8. 1856, died St. Petersburg 1. 7. 1903. Studied history at Univ. of Dorpat (Tartu), especially with Franz Rühl and Ludwig Mendelssohn. Graduated 1877 with an award-winning thesis [1]. Studied abroad, 1880–1883: Berlin, Paris, London and Tübingen (with Alfred von Gutschmid), presumably with a scholarship [11. 105]. Worked from 1883 in the library of the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg; 1886 docto…

Roussel, Pierre

(666 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
Franz. Althistoriker und Epigraphiker. Geb. am 23. 2. 1881 in Nancy, gest. am 1. 10. 1945 in Paris. 1901 Absolvent der École normale supérieure, danach bis 1910 an der École française d’Athènes tätig; dort ab 1906 unter der Anleitung von Maurice Holleaux Arbeit an den delischen Inschriften. 1917 Thèse de doctorat mit zwei Arbeiten zu Delos [2]; [3]. 1915–1918 Unterricht am Pariser Lycée Janson de Sailly; 1918 Prof. an der Univ. Bordeaux, 1919–1925 an der Univ. Straßburg, 1936–1945 an der Sorbonn…

Jullian, Camille

(531 words)

Author(s): Schlange-Schöningen, Heinrich
Franz. Althistoriker. Geb. am 15. 3. 1859 in Marseille als Sohn protestantischer Eltern, gest. am 12. 12. 1933 in Paris. Seit 1877 an der Pariser École normale supérieure; hier Schüler von Paul Vidal de laBlache, Numa D. Fustel de Coulanges (dessen Werke J. später herausgab), Gaston Boissier und Ernest Desjardins; 1880 Jahrgangsbester der Konkurrenz um die Agrégation im Fach Gesch. 1880–1882 Mitglied der École française de Rome; Studienaufenthalt in Berlin mit Besuch der epigr. Übungen bei Theod…
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