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ʿAbd Allāh b. Rawāḥa

(433 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, a Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ite, belonging to the most esteemed clan of the Banu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲. At the second ʿAḳaba assembly in March 622, ʿAbd Allāh was one of the 12 trustworthy men, whom the already converted Medinians, conformably to the Prophet’s wish, had chosen. When Muḥammad had emigrated to Medīna, ʿAbd Allāh proved himself to be one of the most energetic and upright champions of his cause. Muḥammad appears to have thought a great deal of him, and often entrusted him with honorable missions. After th…

Abū ʿAṭāʾ al-Sindī

(221 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, Aflaḥ (or Marzūḳ ) b. Yasār , Arabic poet. He owes his surname of al-Sindī to the fact that his father came from Sind; he himself was born in Kūfa and lived there as a client of the Banū Asad. He fought for the declining Umayyad dynasty with pen and sword, praising them and casting scorn on their adversaries. It is true, however, that when the ʿAbbāsids obtained power, he tried to insinuate himself into the favour of the new rulers by singing their praises. But the ¶ iron character of al-Saffāḥ was but little sensible to such fawning, and under the reign of his successor, al-Manṣ…

ʿAdī b. Ḥātim

(307 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd al-Ṭāʾī , Abū Ṭarīf , Companion of the Prophet, and subsequently a follower of ʿAlī. Son of the celebrated poet Ḥātim al-Ṭāʾī [ q.v.], and, like him, a Christian, he had inherited the command of his tribe from his father, but when threatened with the loss of it he became converted to Islam, in 9 or 10/630-1, and collected the taxes of Ṭayyiʾ and Asad. After the death of the Prophet he remained faithful to Islam, and prevented his tribe from apostatizing during the ridda . Later on he took part in the conquest of ʿIrāḳ, and received from ʿUt…

al-Ḳaiyūm

(239 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), one of the “beautiful names” of Allāh (see i. 303), according to some theologians the greatest name of Allāh (see Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, ix. 36, 7 from below — ult. The word is of Jewish origin and means like its prototype, the Hebrew or the Aramaic (cf. Hirschfeld, New Researches into the Composition and Exegesis of the Qoran, London 1902, p. 69, 12 and note 89; Brünnow-Fischer, Arabische Chrestomathie, Berlin 1913, glossary under ḳwm) “the eternal”. Muḥammad, who uses it three times in the Ḳorʾān (ii. 256; iii. 1 and xx. 110) may have picked it up from the Jews of …

Bayān

(27 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), Lucidity, explanation. ʿIlm al-Bayān is often used synonymously with ʿIlm al-Balāg̲h̲a [see balāg̲h̲a] although strictly it only denotes a subsection of it. (A. Schaade)

Abu ’l-S̲h̲īṣ

(324 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
Muḥammed b. Razīn, Arabian poet. He was, according to the Kìtāb al-ag̲h̲ānī, the uncle, but according to the Kitāb al-s̲h̲iʿr of Ibn Ḳotaiba (who consequently makes Razīn to have been the poet’s grandfather), the cousin of the poet Diʿbil. Like the latter he lived at the Court of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd. Ag̲h̲ānī (v. 36) relates an adventure that Abu ’l-S̲h̲īṣ had with a female slave of the caliph. Dissatisfied with the appreciation and above all probably with the reward he obtained in Bagdad, he went to al-Raḳḳa, where, according to his own statemen…

Aiyil

(236 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.; ep. Hebr. aiyal) is an antlered mammal, described by Damīrī (Cairo 1274-1275 i. 165—167) as follows: Its horns are massive, and begin to grow when it has passed its second year. During the third year they shoot into branches, and this ramification continues until they form a tree-like antler. This is afterwards thrown off every year, but always grows again. The number of the “nodes” (antlers) corresponds with the number of the animal’s years. The aiyil is a good leaper; when chased it precipit…

Dāl

(46 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the eighth letter of the usual Arabic Alphabet, and fourth of the Abd̲j̲ad (whence its numerical value = 4). It is pronounced at the present day as in Old Arabic as a voiced dental explosive. Cf. A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Lautlehre, Index. (A. Schaade) ¶

Ḏj̲azm

(225 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a,; literally “cutting”), a technical term of Arabic grammar: apocope. It is the name given to one of the three moods of the imperfect ( wad̲j̲h min wud̲j̲ūh iʿrāb al-muḍāriʿ), viz., to the one, whose forms without an inflectional ending end in a consonant in a strong verb and in a short vowel in a weak verb ( yafʿal: yafʿalu; yag̲h̲zu: yag̲h̲zū). The d̲j̲azm (in the strong verb at least) corresponds in form to the sukūn (which Sībawaihi also calls waḳf) at the end of indeclinable words; according to the Arab view it also corresponds to the d̲j̲arr [q. v.] of the noun (just as the indicati…

Ḳāf

(138 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the 21st letter of the usual Arabic alphabet (numerical value 100; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad). The form of the character goes back to the Nabataean ḳāf and later in Arabic was assimilated in form to fāʾ, so that it had to be distinguished from the latter by pointing (cf. the article arabia, arabic writing, i. 383b and plate I). In Sībawaihi’s time ḳāf was pronounced as a velar g. This pronunciation is still frequently found among Beduins and peasants; in the ordinary popular language, however, ḳāf is usually pronounced as hamza; for other modern popular pronunciations of ḳāf see the article ara…

Fāʾ

(62 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the twentieth letter of the Arabic alphabet (numerical value 80; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad i. 68b et seq.). On the evolution of the character see the article arabia, arabic language, i. 383b. Fāʾ is pronounced at the present day as it was, in old Arabic, viz. as a voiceless labiodental aspirate. Cf. A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Laullekre, Index. (A. Schaade)

Dīk al-Ḏj̲inn

(409 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, (“Cock of the Demons”), a name of the Arabic poet of Syria ʿAbd al-Salām b. Rag̲h̲bān. His ancestor Tamīm had adopted Islām at Muʾta [q. v.] from Ḥabīb b. Maslama al-Fihrī, who became prefect of Ḳinnasrīn near Ḥalab (Aleppo) under Abū ʿUbaida in the year 15 (636-637). Dīk al-Ḏj̲inn was born in 161 (777-778), spent most of his life in Ḥimṣ (Emesa) and died in 235 (849-850) or 236 in the Caliphate of Mutawakkil. According to his nephew Abū Wahb ( Ag̲h̲ānī, xii, 142) he was “a frivolous good-for-nothing, bent only on eating and drinking and other enjoyments, a dissipator of hi…

G̲h̲ain

(99 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet (numerical value 1000; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad); the character g̲h̲ain is a variant of ʿain. In most modern dialects it is pronounced as a voiced velar aspirate. The old Arab writers on phonetics describe it as a guttural; but it seems very doubtful if it ever really was pronounced as a post-uvular. G̲h̲ain has become ʿain in many modem dialects (for details see the article arabia, arabic dialects, i. p. 396b). Cf. A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’ss Lautlchre, particularly p. 19, N°. 3 and note 48; and the index. (A. Schaade)

Faṣāḥa

(166 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), properly “clarity, purity”, abstract noun from faṣīḥ, clear, pure. In Arabic rhetoric faṣīḥ means: 1. a single word, when it is not difficult to pronounce, is not a foreign or rare word and its form is not an exception to the usual; 2. a whole sentence, when it does not contain an objectionable construction, a discord, an obscurity (through a confusion in the arrangement of the words) or a metaphor too far fetched and therefore incomprehensible. The first kind of faṣāḥa is called faṣāḥat al-mufrad, the latter faṣāḥat al-kalām. There is also a faṣāḥat al-mutakallim. This is peculiar …

Fāʿil

(170 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a., properly “agent”), a technical term in Arabic grammar = the subject of the verbal sentence, but only of the active verb (like Zaid un in the sentence d̲j̲āʿa Zaid un = Zaid came), while that of the passive (like Zaid un in ḍuriba Zaid un = Z. was beaten) is called al-mafʿūl allad̲h̲ī lam yusamma fāʿiluhu, = the “patient” whose agent is not mentioned” (in Sībawaihi, Ch. 8 et seq. other expressions are also given). The fāʿil can be a word only, not a sentence (this is given as a teaching of Sībawaihi’s in al-Mubarrad, Kāmil, i. 289, 14—15). It must follow its fiʿl (verb) and is placed by it in …

ʿAbd Allāh

(414 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
b. Rawāḥa, a Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ite, belonging to the most esteemed clan of the Banu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲. At the second ʿAḳaba assembly in March 622, ʿAbd Allāh was one of the 12 trustworthy men, whom the already converted Medinians conformably to the Prophet’s wish had chosen. When Muḥammed had emigrated to ¶ Medina, ʿAbd Allāh proved himself to be one of the most energetic and upright champions of his cause. Muḥammed appears to have thought a great deal of him, and often entrusted him with honorable missions. After the battle of Bedr in the year 623, in wh…

Diʿbil

(1,646 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(as a noun means “an old she-camel”), the pen-name of a famous Arab poet of the ʿAbbāsid period. His real name, according to the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī was Muḥammad while other authorities say it was al-Ḥasan or ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. His kunya was Abū ʿAlī or Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar. His ancestor Razīn was a client of ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḵh̲alaf the Ḵh̲uzāʿī who was secretary to the Caliph ʿOmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb. Diʿbil was born in 148 (765); his birthplace is unknown. His family was settled in Bag̲h̲dād but originally belonged to Kūfa, though some say to Karkīsiya (Circesia). The poet certa…

Fard

(173 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.; plur. afrād) = single, unique, without an equal etc. The word is a technical term in various branches of knowledge. In theology it designates God as the One, whom there is none like. In the Ḳorʾān and in the sayings of Muḥammad that have been transmitted in tradition al-fard does not appear as an attribute of God. Al-Azharī on this account disapproves of the application of the word to Allāh. But it is possibly simply a paraphrase of the Ḳorʾānic ( huwa Allāhu) aḥad, which has the meaning “unique” in this passage only if at all. In poetry fard means an isolated verse. In Tradition fard is synony…

Ḳaiyim

(484 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), originally: “he who stands upright”, then (with bi, ʿalā, li or the genitive alone): he who takes something upon himself, takes care of some-thing or someone and hence also has authority over them. Thus we find the pre-Islāmic poet al-Ḳuṭāmī ( Dīwān, ed. Barth, Leiden 1902, N°. 26) already speaking of a “ḳaiyim of water”, i. e. apparently the man in charge of it, the supervisor, and the poet Bāʿit̲h̲ b. Ṣuraim ( Ḥamāsa of Abū Tammām, ed. Freytag, p. 269, verse 2) speaks of the ḳaiyim of a woman i. e. he who provides for her, her husband. The first mentioned mean…

Ḏh̲āl

(58 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the ninth letter of the usual Arabic alphabet (numerical value 700; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad). The letter is a variant of dāl. In Old Arabic it was pronounced as a voiced interdental or postdental spirant; now as a rule it is a voiced dental explosive (= Dāl). Cf. A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Lautlehre, index. (A. Schaade)
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