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ʿAdī b. Ḥātim

(307 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd al-Ṭāʾī , Abū Ṭarīf , Companion of the Prophet, and subsequently a follower of ʿAlī. Son of the celebrated poet Ḥātim al-Ṭāʾī [ q.v.], and, like him, a Christian, he had inherited the command of his tribe from his father, but when threatened with the loss of it he became converted to Islam, in 9 or 10/630-1, and collected the taxes of Ṭayyiʾ and Asad. After the death of the Prophet he remained faithful to Islam, and prevented his tribe from apostatizing during the ridda . Later on he took part in the conquest of ʿIrāḳ, and received from ʿUt…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Rawāḥa

(433 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, a Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ite, belonging to the most esteemed clan of the Banu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲. At the second ʿAḳaba assembly in March 622, ʿAbd Allāh was one of the 12 trustworthy men, whom the already converted Medinians, conformably to the Prophet’s wish, had chosen. When Muḥammad had emigrated to Medīna, ʿAbd Allāh proved himself to be one of the most energetic and upright champions of his cause. Muḥammad appears to have thought a great deal of him, and often entrusted him with honorable missions. After th…

Abū ʿAṭāʾ al-Sindī

(221 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, Aflaḥ (or Marzūḳ ) b. Yasār , Arabic poet. He owes his surname of al-Sindī to the fact that his father came from Sind; he himself was born in Kūfa and lived there as a client of the Banū Asad. He fought for the declining Umayyad dynasty with pen and sword, praising them and casting scorn on their adversaries. It is true, however, that when the ʿAbbāsids obtained power, he tried to insinuate himself into the favour of the new rulers by singing their praises. But the ¶ iron character of al-Saffāḥ was but little sensible to such fawning, and under the reign of his successor, al-Manṣ…


(166 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), properly “clarity, purity”, abstract noun from faṣīḥ, clear, pure. In Arabic rhetoric faṣīḥ means: 1. a single word, when it is not difficult to pronounce, is not a foreign or rare word and its form is not an exception to the usual; 2. a whole sentence, when it does not contain an objectionable construction, a discord, an obscurity (through a confusion in the arrangement of the words) or a metaphor too far fetched and therefore incomprehensible. The first kind of faṣāḥa is called faṣāḥat al-mufrad, the latter faṣāḥat al-kalām. There is also a faṣāḥat al-mutakallim. This is peculiar …


(170 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a., properly “agent”), a technical term in Arabic grammar = the subject of the verbal sentence, but only of the active verb (like Zaid un in the sentence d̲j̲āʿa Zaid un = Zaid came), while that of the passive (like Zaid un in ḍuriba Zaid un = Z. was beaten) is called al-mafʿūl allad̲h̲ī lam yusamma fāʿiluhu, = the “patient” whose agent is not mentioned” (in Sībawaihi, Ch. 8 et seq. other expressions are also given). The fāʿil can be a word only, not a sentence (this is given as a teaching of Sībawaihi’s in al-Mubarrad, Kāmil, i. 289, 14—15). It must follow its fiʿl (verb) and is placed by it in …

ʿAbd Allāh

(414 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
b. Rawāḥa, a Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ite, belonging to the most esteemed clan of the Banu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲. At the second ʿAḳaba assembly in March 622, ʿAbd Allāh was one of the 12 trustworthy men, whom the already converted Medinians conformably to the Prophet’s wish had chosen. When Muḥammed had emigrated to ¶ Medina, ʿAbd Allāh proved himself to be one of the most energetic and upright champions of his cause. Muḥammed appears to have thought a great deal of him, and often entrusted him with honorable missions. After the battle of Bedr in the year 623, in wh…


(1,646 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(as a noun means “an old she-camel”), the pen-name of a famous Arab poet of the ʿAbbāsid period. His real name, according to the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī was Muḥammad while other authorities say it was al-Ḥasan or ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. His kunya was Abū ʿAlī or Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar. His ancestor Razīn was a client of ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḵh̲alaf the Ḵh̲uzāʿī who was secretary to the Caliph ʿOmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb. Diʿbil was born in 148 (765); his birthplace is unknown. His family was settled in Bag̲h̲dād but originally belonged to Kūfa, though some say to Karkīsiya (Circesia). The poet certa…


(173 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.; plur. afrād) = single, unique, without an equal etc. The word is a technical term in various branches of knowledge. In theology it designates God as the One, whom there is none like. In the Ḳorʾān and in the sayings of Muḥammad that have been transmitted in tradition al-fard does not appear as an attribute of God. Al-Azharī on this account disapproves of the application of the word to Allāh. But it is possibly simply a paraphrase of the Ḳorʾānic ( huwa Allāhu) aḥad, which has the meaning “unique” in this passage only if at all. In poetry fard means an isolated verse. In Tradition fard is synony…


(484 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), originally: “he who stands upright”, then (with bi, ʿalā, li or the genitive alone): he who takes something upon himself, takes care of some-thing or someone and hence also has authority over them. Thus we find the pre-Islāmic poet al-Ḳuṭāmī ( Dīwān, ed. Barth, Leiden 1902, N°. 26) already speaking of a “ḳaiyim of water”, i. e. apparently the man in charge of it, the supervisor, and the poet Bāʿit̲h̲ b. Ṣuraim ( Ḥamāsa of Abū Tammām, ed. Freytag, p. 269, verse 2) speaks of the ḳaiyim of a woman i. e. he who provides for her, her husband. The first mentioned mean…


(58 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the ninth letter of the usual Arabic alphabet (numerical value 700; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad). The letter is a variant of dāl. In Old Arabic it was pronounced as a voiced interdental or postdental spirant; now as a rule it is a voiced dental explosive (= Dāl). Cf. A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Lautlehre, index. (A. Schaade)


(72 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
the name of the sign for the vowel u (also o, ö) in Arabic. The sign is originally an abbreviated wāw (cf. the article, arabia, arabic alphabet, p. 384). The sound expressed by Ḍamma is called Ḍamm i.e. “contraction” (of the lips), rounding of the lips. The Arabs therefore correctly recognised one feature of the formation of u and o. Cf. also A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Lautlehre, p. 24. (A. Schaade)


(75 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the 22nd letter of the usual Arabic alphabet (numeral value 20; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad). The pronunciation of kāf as an unvoiced palatal explosive, found as early as Sībawaihi, has survived in modern academic speech. In the present day popular speech we find some variants (in addition to k) notably the affricate č (< c′ < k′). Cf. the article arabia, arabic dialects, i. 396b; and Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Lautlehre, Index. (A. Schaade)


(181 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.; literally “action”), a technical term in Arabic grammar: the verb. According to al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Mufaṣṣal, p. 108 (§ 402) it is “that which indicates the association of a ḥadat̲h̲. (event) with a time”. Muḥammad A’lā adds the reference to the agent” in his Dictionary of Technical Terms (ed. Sprenger etc., ii. 1142 et seq.). But this addition is only correct for the active verb. On the other hand the emphasis laid on the notion of time, which is found as early as Sībawathi (chap. 1), shows that the Arabic verb had for long been not so tense…


(156 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the fifteenth letter of the ordinary Arabic alphabet (as a numeral = 800; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad). Ḍād is in form a variant of Ṣād (see the article arabia, arabic writing, p. 383b). In Sībawaihi’s time, Ḍād seems to have been pronounced as a voiced velar spirant, in which the air found an exit on both sides of the back of the tongue while the tip of the tongue lay close to the gum of the upper incisors. There was also a partial variety the so-called “weak Ḍād”. In modern dialects Ḍād is either a voiced velar alveolar explos…

ʿAbd Allāh

(433 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
b. Ubaiy, also called Ibn Salūl after his mother, chief of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ites. Before the coming of Muḥammed to Medina ʿAbd Allāh had dominion over Aws and Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ — the only case, says Ibn His̲h̲ām explicitly, in which these two tribes united under a common chief. — After the coming of Muḥammed ʿAbd Allāh was obliged to follow the example of the masses and embrace Islām, in order not to be entirely set aside; but in his heart he bore a bitter grudge against his rival, whom he now looked on as a…


(93 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), literally “opening”, a term in Arabic grammar for the pronunciation of a consonant with the vowel a; the sign is therefore called fatha. In Slbawaihi (e. g. ed. Derenbourg, ii. 281,9) fatḥ is still occasionally applied to the pronunciation of the fatḥa without “ L’mlaut”, i. c. the opposite of imāla [q. v.]. — In Arithmetic fatḥ means the square of a number—There are other technical uses of the word for which see Muḥammad Aʿlā, Diet, of Techn. Terms, ed. Sprenger etc., ii. 1104 et seq. s. v. (A. Schaade)

Ḏh̲u ’l-Rumma

(974 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, an Arab poet of the tribe of Banū ʿAdī. His proper name was G̲h̲ailān b. Uḳba b. Masʿūd (or Buhais̲h̲). His mother was called Ẓabya and belonged to the Banū Asad. He was a contemporary of Ḏj̲arīr and Farazdaḳ and in the feud between these two poets took the side of al-Farazdaḳ but without in any way distinguishing himself. He also wrote satires on the tribe of Imruʾ al-Ḳais, who found a champion in the poet His̲h̲ām. As the latter could only write rad̲j̲az verses, with which he could not hold his own against the more elaborate metres of Ḏh̲u ’l-Rumma, al-Farazdaḳ had to come …


(3,661 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, an Arabic metre. The name is said by the Arabs (see e.g. L.A., vii. 218 middle and Freytag, Darstellung der arabischen Verskunst, p. 135) to mean “trembling” and to have been given to the metre because it can be shortened to two double feet and thus become like a rad̲j̲zāʾ i. e. a she-camel which trembles with weakness when rising up. Other Arab explanations connect the word with rid̲j̲āza “counterpoise” (al-Suhailī on Ibn His̲h̲ām, ed. Wüstenfeld, i. 171, 10: ibid., ii. 58 below). Nöldeke’s suggestion ( W.Z.K.M., x., 1896, p. 342) that rad̲j̲az means something like rumbling (na…


(52 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.; literally, “union, unity”) “the whole body of Muslims, in opposition to the heretics, who are separated from the community as seceders” (Juynboll, Handbuch dss Islāmischen Gesetzes, p. 46, note 1). It is not to be confused ¶ with id̲j̲māʿ, the consensus of Muslim scholars of a particular period. (A. Schaade)

Emīn Pas̲h̲a

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, a distinguished German explorer and coloniser of Africa. Emīn whose real name was Eduard Schnitzer was born in Oppeln (Schlesia) on the 28th March 1840. From 1858—1864 he studied medicine and science in Breslau, Berlin and Königsberg, taking his Dr. Med. degree in March 1863. In autumn 1864 he went to Antivari which at that time was still a Turkish possession. Here he began to practise medicine privately but in the following summer he was appointed quarantine and medical officer for the district. Schnitzer became a …
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