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Chinese Studies in the West

(3,083 words)

Author(s): Schütte, Hans-Wilm
1. Definition and Methods Chinese Studies, or Sinology in European parlance, is generally defined as the "scholarly exploration of China." Although this explanation might point to the core of Sinological work, it must be considered imprecise and inadequate in light of today's academic standards. Rather, Sinology ought to be viewed as an umbrella term for scholarly research on the basis of Chinese source material. Typically, but not exclusively, these sources are written sources, but there are also m…


(2,278 words)

Author(s): Schütte, Hans-Wilm
Before the emergence of steam-power and mechanized factory production at the end of the 19th century, handicrafts in principle comprised the entire secondary sector, with guild crafts and (mostly female) home production (primarily textiles) as the major areas (mining and subsistence production cannot be covered here). With progressive industrialization, handicrafts became regarded as the part of non-agricultural production, which preserved handed down structures or was, at the very least, charac…