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Troparion

(124 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
[English version] (τροπάριον, von τρόπος/ trópos in der Bed. “Tonart, Ton”). Urspr. eine kurze Strophe in freier rhythmischer byz. Prosa mit Bittcharakter, in seiner Melodie der Psalmodie ähnelnd. Das t. stand am Anfang der byz. Hymnographie (Hymnos IV.) und wurde zunächst zu jedem Psalmvers antiphonisch gesungen. Ab dem 5. Jh. wurde es erweitert und in den Schluß des Psalms (zw. die 3-6 letzten Verse) integriert. Es fand auch Eingang in kontákion und kanṓn [2]. Meist anon. überl., erfährt das t. erst ab dem 11./12. Jh. (Sophronios von Jerusalem) eine einheitliche liturgi…

Tarasios

(113 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
[English version] (Ταράσιος). Patriarch von Konstantinopolis (ca. 730-806 n. Chr.), von adliger Herkunft, Sekretär der Kaiserin Irene, die ihn im Rahmen ihrer Restaurationsbemühungen um den Bilderkult 784 zum Patriarchen wählen ließ. Die von ihm zur Lösung des Bilderstreits (Syrische Dynastie) einberufene Synode ( sýnodos [2]) in Nikaia konnte 787 in einem zweiten Anlauf die Wiederherstellung des Bilderkultes beschließen. Auf ihn gehen die auf der Synode verlesenen Beschlüsse zurück, die er bereits 754 verfaßt hatte. Savvidis, Kyriakos Bibliography Ed.: PG 98, 1424-1428 …

Synaxarion

(113 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
(συναξάριον). [English version] [1] Kurzvita Kurzvita oder enkomiastische Notiz in den Menäen im órthros (ὄρθρος, “Morgengottesdienst”) der orthodoxen Kirche zw. der 6. und 7. Ode des Kanons [2], der mit dem s. den Gottesdienst des jeweiligen Tagesheiligen oder Festes prägt. Aufbau: Monatsdatum, Epigramm in iambischen Versen, Nennung des Heiligen, des Festes, Hexameter auf Datum und Namen, histor. Notiz, Erwähnung der Kirche, die seiner gedenkt, Vita des Heiligen. Savvidis, Kyriakos [English version] [2] Buch mit Kurzviten Buch, das die synaxária enthält (s. auch Menologi…

Tabor

(144 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
[English version] (Ταβώρ). Konisch zulaufender Berg mit ausladendem Gipfelplateau (ca. 1200 × 400 m) in der Jesreel-Ebene in Israel. Nach Jos 19,22 grenzten an den T. die Stammesgebiete von Sebulon, Assachar und Naftali. In den biblischen Schriften werden keine Hinweise auf eine kultische Funktion des Bergs gegeben. Es besteht auch kein Zusammenhang zum Kult des rhodischen Gottes Zeus Atabyrios ([1]; Rhodos). Eisenzeitliche Besiedlung konnte nachgewiesen werden [2], die später von röm. und byz. Si…

Šīrīn

(62 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
Savvidis, Kyriakos [English version] [1] persische Märtyrerin, gest. 599 (Σιρή). Persische Märtyrerin, † 559 n. Chr. S. war die Tochter eines angesehenen pers. Magiers, die nach ihrer Konversion zum Christentum unter dem Perserkönig Chosroes [5] I. öffentlich durch Erhängen hingerichtet wurde. Bibliography P. Devos, Saint Šīrīn Martyr Khosrau Ier Avrošarvan, in: Analecta Bollandiana 64, 1946, 87-131. [English version] [2] s. Schirin s. Schirin

Synodikon

(94 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
[English version] (Συνοδικόν). Liturgisches Formular in der orthodoxen Kirche. Das S. entstand in der Zeit des Bilderstreits 843 n. Chr. auf Initiative des Methodios, des Patriarchen von Konstantinopolis als Dokument des Sieges des Patriarchats über die Ikonoklasten (Syrische Dynastie). Es führt die Trad. der Diptychen fort. Anf. des 11. Jh. kam dem S. die allgemeinere Funktion eines liturgischen Formulars zu, das neben den verurteilten Häresien eine Kommemorationsliste der Kaiser und Patriarchen (in der Prov. auch der Metropoliten) enthielt. Savvidis, Kyriakos Bibliograp…

Sophronios

(190 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
[English version] (Σωφρόνιος). Patriarch von Jerusalem (634-638), griech.-byz. Heiliger, Dichter und Schriftsteller. S. stammte wahrscheinlich aus Damaskos und lehrte Rhet. Er wurde Mönch in Palaestina und unternahm mit seinem Freund Iohannes [29] Moschos Reisen zu den dortigen Mönchssiedlungen. Als standhafter Gegner des Monotheletismus versuchte er im J. 633 erfolglos, Kyros von Phasis, den Patriarchen von Alexandreia [1], davon abzubringen. S. konnte sich mit dem Patriarchen von Konstantinopoli…

Syntomon

(70 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
[English version] (σύντομον). Das s. steht als byz. liturgische Dichtung zw. kontákion zum kanṓn [2], ohne jedoch deren Beliebtheit erreicht zu haben. Seine vier bis neun Strophen werden in der Liturgie der orthodoxen Kirche zw. Psalmverse eingeschoben, weshalb das s. auch stichērón (στιχηρόν) genannt wird. Verm. geht es auf den Meloden Kyprianos (1. H. des 8. Jh.) zurück. Hymnos VI. Savvidis, Kyriakos Bibliography J. Szövérffy, A Guide to Byzantine Hymnography ..., 1979.

Paphnutius

(126 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Παφνούτιος; Paphnoútios), died around AD 360. According to Socrates [9] (Hist. eccl. 1,11), P. attended the first Council of Nicaea [5] (AD 325) as bishop of Upper Thebias. During the persecution of Christians, perhaps under Maximinus [1] Daia, he lost an eye. He was held in high regard by emperor Constantinus [1] and considered an ecclesiastical authority because of his strict monastic lifestyle. It is uncertain whether remarks attributed to him by Socrates ( loc. cit.) regarding the celibacy of priests (retention of clerical marriages entered into pri…

Book of Letters

(107 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] Armenian collection of important theological letters, documenting the history of the Armenian church and its relations with neighbouring churches (Syria, Georgia, Byzantium), such as the separation of the Georgian church from the Armenian in c. 600. The Book of Letters is divided into three chronological phases: 5th-7th, 8th-11th and 11th-13th cents.  Byzantium;  Georgia;  Syria Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography Girk T̀`ġtoc`, 1901 E. Ter-Minassiantz, Die armen. Kirche in ihren Beziehungen zu den syr. Kirchen. Bis zum Ende des 13.Jh.…

Šīrīn

(66 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) [German version] [1] Persian martyr, died in 599 (Σιρή; Sirḗ). Persian martyr, died 559 AD. S. was the daughter of a respected Persian magus, who after her conversion to Christianity was publicly executed by hanging under the Persian king Chosroes [5] I. Bibliography P. Devos, Saint Šīrīn Martyr Khosrau Ier Avrošarvan, in: Analecta Bollandiana 64, 1946, 87-131. [German version] [2] see Schirin See Shirin.

Synodikon

(110 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Συνοδικόν; Synodikón). Liturgical formula of the Orthodox Church. The synodìkon originated in the period of iconoclasm in AD 843, on the initiative of Methodius, patriarch of Constantinople, as a document of the victory of the patriarchate over the iconoclasts (Syrian dynasty). It continued the tradition of the diptycha . At the beginning of the 11th cent., the synodìkon was granted the more general function of a liturgical formula, which contained a commemoration list of emperors and patriarchs (in the prov…

Sahak

(308 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Isaac). S. I (the Great), born between AD 340 and 350, died AD 438/9. Patriarch of Armenia, son of the patriarch Nerses the Great; last representative of the Gregorians (descendants of Gregory the Illuminator, Armenia [B]). S. grew up in Constantinople and studied there. Named patriarch of the Armenian Church in 387 in a time of internal conflict after Armenia was divided between Byzantium and Persia, his election was intended to reinforce Armenia's ties to Byzantium to counter t…

Kontakion

(198 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (κοντάκιον, κονδάκιον; kontákion, kondákion; from κοντός, ‘parchment roll’). Name given in later times to a genre of Byzantine hymns documented first in the 6th cent. AD. The kontakion consists of 18 to 24 metrically equal stanzas (so-called oíkoi, οἶκοι), preceded by the metrically differing prooemium ( koukoúlion, κουκούλιον). The individual stanzas are connected by acrostichs ( Acrostich) and have a common refrain (the ephýmnion or akroteleútion, ἐφύμνιον, ἀκροτελεύτιον). Kontakia are related to the Syrian madraša ( Ephrem Syrus), …

Chazars

(199 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] The C. (Turkish, roughly ‘vagabonds’) belong to the group of Turkish-Altaic peoples and are attested from the 3rd/4th cents. AD. Originally nomadic, in the 7th cent. they founded an autonomous empire reaching from the Black Sea to the Don. Their king (Qağan) was political and religious leader. Although they did not develop their own written language they left behind loan words in Arabic, Greek, Armenian, Georgian, Hebrew and Persian i.a. Their campaigns of conquest reached as far …

Troparion

(139 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (τροπάριον/ tropárion, from τρόπος/ trópos in the sense of 'mode, note'). Originally a short strophe in free-rhythm Byzantine prose with the character of a prayer and a melody resembling psalmody. The troparion was present at the beginning of  Byzantine hymnography (Hymnos IV.) and was initially sung in antiphony to every verse of a psalm. From the 5th cent. it was expanded and integrated into the ending of psalms (between the 3-6 last verses). It also found entry into the kontákion and the kanṓn [2]. For the most part transmitted anonymously, the troparion experienced…

Potamiaena

(117 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ποταμιαίνα/ Potamiaína). Martyr (died c. AD 360; feast 7 or 28 June). Pupil of Origenes [1] in Alexandria. According to an account by Eusebius [7] (Eus. HE 6,4) she suffered martyrdom under Septimius Severus (193-211). She converted the soldier Basileides who escorted her to her execution. Together with her mother Marcella she was executed by having hot pitch poured over her. After three days she is supposed to have appeared to Basileides, who was arrested for his conversion and then also martyred. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henscheniu…

Mesrop

(287 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] Known as Maštoc in the older MSS and in the vita written by his student Koriwn. His date of birth ( c. AD 360/364) and his descent from the influential family of the Mamikonians are uncertain. Born in Katzikk in the Armenian province of Tarawn, M. received a Hellenic education. After military service under the Armenian king - either Chosrov III ( Chosroes [4]) or his lieutenant Arawan - in Vagharshapat, he became a secretary at the Armenian royal court between 385 and 389. Between 390 and 395, the Armenian Patriarch Sahak [Isaac] the Great ( c. 457-438) made him a monk. Af…

Diatessaron

(285 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (τὸ διὰ τεσσάρων [εὐαγγέλιον]; tò dià tessárōn [euangélion]). The Diatessaron is the earliest extant harmonization of the gospels, dating back to Tatian, who in the latter third of the 2nd cent. combined the four canonical gospels into one homogenous presentation by embedding the synoptic tradition within the chronological framework of the gospel of John. He also used some apocryphal material and furthermore showed his encratitic, anti-Jewish, and docetic ( Docetics) leanings. Whether the Diatessaron was originally written in Greek or Syriac, in Rom…

Apophthegmata patrum

(215 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀποφθέγματα πατρῶν; Apophthégmata patrôn). Anonymous collection of ‘Patristic sayings’ belonging to the most copied works of early monasticism. It contains short anecdotes of early monastic life and the   anachoresis in the Egyptian desert. They are teachings, prophetic predictions and miraculous acts that describe the daily routine of the monks. Particularly characteristic of the apophthegmata patrum are those sayings that are formulaically introduced by the plea of a believer who petitioned the anchorite in search of advice: ‘Tell …
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