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Maʿārif

(20,090 words)

Author(s): Winter, M. | Elayed, A. | Hadj-Salah, A. | Salmi, J. | Sana'i, Mahmud
(a.), education, public instruction. The word is the pl. of maʿrifa “knowledge”. The term was already used in mediaeval times to denote the secular subjects of knowledge or culture in general (e.g. in the title of Ibn Ḳutayba’s Kitāb al-Maʿārif ), in opposition to the religious sciences ( ʿulūm , pl. of ʿilm ). 1. In the Ottoman empire and the central and eastern Arab lands It seems that the official use of the term appears for the first time in the Ottoman Empire in 1838, when a school for educating government officials was established in Istanbul and was named Mekteb-i Maʿārif-i ʿAdliyye

Maʿārif

(18,503 words)

Author(s): Winter, M. | Elayed, A. | Hadj-Salah, A. | Salmi, J. | Sanaʾi, Mahmud
(a.) «éducation, instruction publique», pl. de maʿrifa [ q.v.], déjà employé au moyen âge pour désigner les connaissances profanes ou la culture générale (par ex. dans le titre du Kitāb al-Maʿārif d’Ibn Ḳutayba),par opposition aux sciences religieuses ( ʿulūm, pl. de ʿīlm). I. — Empire ottoman et pays arabes du Proche-Orient. Ce terme paraît être entré dans l’usage officiel de l’empire ottoman, avec le sens de «connaissances modernes», en 1838, lorsque fut créée à Istanbul une ¶ école destinée à la formation des fonctionnaires, le Mekteb-i Maʿārif-i ʿadliyya. Par la suite, ce term…