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Emrullah Efendi

(739 words)

Author(s): Sabev, Orlin
Emrullah (Amr Allāh) Efendi (1275/1858–22 Ramazan (Ramaḍān) 1332/14 August 1914) was a prominent Ottoman educationalist and minister of public instruction. He was born to a merchant, Ali (ʿAlī) Efendi, in 1275/1858, in Lüleburgaz (a town in European Turkey, 138 km/86 mi west-northwest of Istanbul). After graduating from the Mekteb-i Mülkiye (School of Civil Service) in 1298/1881, Emrullah Efendi served as maarif müdürü ( maʿārif müdīr, director of education) in Ioannina (1299/1882), Salonica (1301/1884), Aleppo (1304/1887), and Aydın (1308/1891). In 1309/189…
Date: 2018-07-12

Education, later Ottoman

(2,091 words)

Author(s): Sabev, Orlin
Prior to the Tanzimat (Tanẓīmāt, 1255–93/1839–76) and later Ottoman period, education was under the jurisdiction of the various religious communities whose religious and cultural autonomy was recognized by the authorities. Muslims had two main options for schooling their children: 1) sıbyan (ṣıbyān) mektebis (elementary schools), which taught reading, memorization of the Qurʾān, and basic religious knowledge, and 2) medreses ( madrasa, theological school), which trained the ulema ( ʿulamāʾ, religious scholars). Both types of school were supported by vakıfs ( waqf, pious fou…
Date: 2018-07-12

Enderun Mektebi

(688 words)

Author(s): Sabev, Orlin
The Enderun Mektebi (Enderūn Mektebi, Palace School) was established to educate and train capable state governors, clerks, and officers—in other words, the Ottoman ruling elite. In Ottoman Turkish, enderūn means “inside” (from the Persian andarūn), and Enderun Mektebi literally denotes “Internal School.” There are various views about the exact time of its establishment. Some authors assert that it was founded during the reign of Sultan Murad (Murād) II (r. 824–48/1421–44 and 850–5/1446–51), in Edirne. Others claim that it was la…
Date: 2018-07-12

İbrahim Müteferrika

(1,118 words)

Author(s): Sabev, Orlin
İbrahim Müteferrika (Ibrāhīm Müteferriqa, d. 1160/1747) was born in the early 1080s/1670s, in the Transylvanian town of Kolozsvár (present-day Cluj-Napoca, Romania). He was of Hungarian origin and probably of Unitarian denomination. He reportedly left Transylvania for the Ottoman Empire during Imre Thököly’s anti-Habsburg rebellion in the late eleventh/seventeenth century, which was supported by the Ottomans. It is unclear whether İbrahim Müteferrika left his homeland of his own volition or was forced to do so, having been captured by Ottoman soldiers. After becoming an Ott…
Date: 2018-07-12