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Arabic

(4 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
Barbara Roggema
Date: 2019-03-25

Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm ibn Yaʿqūb ibn Isḥāq al-Saʿdī al-Jūzajānī

(295 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
Al-Jūzajānī Date of Birth: Unknown, probably early 9th c. Place of Birth: Khurāsān Date of Death: 870 or 873 Place of Death: Damascus Biography Al-Jūzajānī was originally from Khurāsān and traveled widely in the Muslim world before settling in Damascus. He is primarily known as a scholar and transmitter of ḥadīth, from Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal among others. Some of his works and the traditions he cited in them are known through ḥadīth collectors of subsequent generations and also through the works of Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī, who used al-Jūzajānī as a source. Al-Ṭabarī…

 To Mār Naṣr, Letter 35

(443 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
To Mār Naṣr, Letter 35 Timothy (Ṭīmāteʾōs), East-Syrian patriarch Date: Unknown, probably between 785 and 789 Original Language: Syriac Description This letter is concerned with the accurate expression of two fundamental Christian doctrines. In the first part, Timothy explains that Christians believe in one God, who is eternally living and rational. While his living eternally implies He has a Spirit who proceeds from Him eternally, His being rational eternally implies the possession of a Word begotten outside of ti…

 Al-burhān

(1,425 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The Proof Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Yaḥyā ibn al-Munajjim Date: Before 873 Original Language: Arabic Description This work belongs to the genre of ‘proofs of prophethood’ treatises (of which several were written in the 9th century) by way of an invitation to Islam, sent to Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq (q.v.) and Qusṭā ibn Lūqā. It is one of the earliest texts to focus heavily on the inimitability of the Qur’ān in the context of the theological-apologetic search for an absolute proof of Muḥammad’s prophethood. The author structured his proof arou…

Unknown author

(52 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The Confession which Kaʿb al-Aḥbār handed down to the Ishmaelites Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Tawditā d-ashlem l-Ishmaʿlāyē Kaʿb sāprā – dukhrāneh l-lūttā Barbara Roggema

 Tashʿitā d-rabban Sargīs

(1,313 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The story of Rabban Sergius, The Legend of Sergius BaḥīrāThe Baḥīrā legend Unknown author Date: Unknown, probably early 9th c. Original Language: Syriac Description This ‘story’ is a Syriac polemical legend that seeks to explain the rise of Islam from a Christian perspective. It purports to reveal the influence of a Christian monk on Muḥammad during his early life and the beginning of his mission as prophet, and it exploits the story found in the Muslim biographies of Muḥammad (e.g. Ibn Isḥāq’s Sīra) about a monk called Baḥīrā who recognized Muḥammad as the true and final prophet. The legen…

 Majlis dhakara[hu] Īliyya muṭrān Naṣībīn ḥaḍarahu Isrāʾīl al-Kaskarī

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
A disputation reported by Elijah, Metropolitan of Nisibis, which Israel of Kashkar attended, The Debate between Israel of Kashkar and al-Sarakhsī Unknown author Date: Unknown, probably 2nd half of 9th c. Original Language: Arabic Description This text purports to be a report of a religious debate that took place between the East-Syrian bishop Israel of Kashkar (d. 872, q.v.) and Aḥmad ibn al-Ṭayyib al-Sarakhsī, student of the famous Muslim philosopher and polymath Abū Yūsuf al-Kindī (q.v.). The latter is said to have been the ins…

Unknown author

(64 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The Disputation between a monk of Bēt Ḥālēand an Arab notable Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown, probably 8th c. Place of Death: Unknown, probably Iraq Biography -- Primary Sources of Information -- Secondary Sources of Information -- Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Drāshā da-hwā l-ḥad men Ṭayyāyē ʿam iḥidāyā ḥad b-ʿumrā d-Bēt Ḥālē Barbara Roggema

 Kitāb dalīl al-ḥāʾir

(113 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
Guide for the confused Yūḥannā ibn al-Ṣalt Date: Unknown, 2nd half of 9th c.? Original Language: Arabic Description An apologetic exposé of the Christian religion, according to Sbath, Fihris i, p. 7. Significance The work may have been contained arguments in defense of Christianity that were specifically designed to respond to the challenge of Islamic doctrine, but this cannot be determined until a manuscript can be accessed. Manuscripts MS Cairo - Ṣalīb (inaccessible MS in the private collection of ʿAbd al-Masīḥ Ṣalīb al-Masʿūdī, cf. Sbath, Fihris i, p. 7) Editions & Translations -- St…

Unknown author

(50 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
Pseudo-Leo III’s first letter to ʿUmar II Date of Birth: Unknown, 8th c.? Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown, 8th c.? Place of Death: Unknown Biography -- Primary Sources of Information -- Secondary Sources of Information -- Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Title unknown Barbara Roggema

Unknown author

(51 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
Pseudo-ʿUmar II’s letter to Leo III Date of Birth: Unknown, 8th c.? Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown, 8th/9th c.? Place of Death: Unknown, probably Syria Biography -- Primary Sources of Information -- Secondary Sources of Information -- Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Title uncertain Barbara Roggema

 Risālat Abī l-Rabīʿ Muḥammad ibn al-Layth allatī katabahā li-l-Rashīd ilā Qusṭanṭīn malik al-Rūm

(1,610 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The Letter of Abū l-Rabīʿ Muḥammad ibn al-Layth which he wrote for al-Rashīd to the Byzantine emperor Constantine Abū l-Rabīʿ Muḥammad ibn al-Layth Date: c. 796 Original Language: Arabic Description The Risāla has come down to us through Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr (d. 893), who included it in volume 12 of his al-Manthūr wa-l-manẓūm, and its authenticity has not been questioned by modern scholars. It can be dated with some precision to between 790 and 797. At the time of Hārūn al-Rashīd’s accession in 786, the Empress Irene ruled the Byzantine empire on …

Unknown author

(53 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The Affair of the death of Muḥammad Date of Birth: Unknown, perhaps 8th/9th c. Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown, perhaps 8th/9th c. Place of Death: Unknown Biography -- Primary Sources of Information -- Secondary Sources of Information -- Works on Christian-Muslim Relations ʿEltā d-mawteh d-Muḥammad Barbara Roggema

 ʿEltā d-mawteh d-Muḥammad

(481 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The affair of the death of Muḥammad Unknown author Date: Unknown, perhaps 8th/9th c. Original Language: Syriac Description This short polemical tale is to be found as an appendix to the East-Syrian recension of the Legend of Sergius Baḥīrā (q.v.). It relates how the Jew Kaʿb al-Aḥbār told Muḥammad's followers that their prophet was the Paraclete promised by Christ and that on the third day after his death he would rise up and go to heaven, to Christ who sent him. It explains that history proved Kaʿb wrong: when Muḥammad died, his fo…

 Title uncertain

(1,728 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The Letter of ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz to Leo, King of the Christian infidelsThe Letter of ʿUmar II to Leo III Unknown author Date: Unknown, probably mid/late 8th c. Original Language: Arabic Description Several Eastern Christian and Muslim sources from the 9th and 10th centuries make mention of the fact that the Umayyad Caliph ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (r. 717-20) corresponded with the Byzantine emperor Leo III (r. 717-41) about religion (Kaplony, Konstantinopel und Damascus, pp. 207-37). The Armenian History of Ghewond (q.v.) contains a fairly long refutation of Islam which…

 Drāshā da-hwā l-ḥad men Ṭayyāyē ʿam iḥidāyā ḥad b-ʿumrā d-Bēt Ḥālē

(2,002 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The Disputation that took place between one of the Arabs and a certain monk from the monastery of Bēt ḤālēThe Disputation between a monk of Bēt Ḥālē and an Arab notable (with slight variants) Unknown author Date: Probably 720s Original Language: Syriac Description This East-Syrian religious disputation between a monk and an Arab, which covers only 8 folios in the accessible manuscript, is one of the oldest surviving examples of the disputation genre of Christian apologetics vis-à-vis Islam. It is presented as a report of a live encounter and cast in the format of ‘question-and-answer’. Th…

Unknown author

(53 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The Debate between Israel of Kashkar and al-Sarakhsī Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography - Primary Sources of Information - Secondary Sources of Information - Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Majlis dhakara[hu] Īliyya muṭrān Naṣībīn ḥaḍarahu Isrāʾīl al-Kaskarī Barbara Roggema

 Syāmā ʿal haymānutā

(333 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
Treatise on faith Job of Edessa, Job ‘the Spotted’, Ayyub Urhāyā, Ayyūb al-Ruhāwī ‘al-Abrash’ Date: Unknown, probably before 817 Original Language: Syriac Description This is another lost apologetic treatise to which Job refers in the Book of treasures (Mingana, p. 458, trans. p. 279). He mentions that it treated various aspects of the Christian faith, such as the unitarian and trinitarian nature of God, the necessity of baptism, the eucharist, worship to the east, i.e. apologetic topics of crucial importance to Christians in the M…

 Amārāt al-nubuwwa

(176 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
Tokens of prophethood Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm ibn Yaʿqūb ibn Isḥāq al-Saʿdī al-Jūzajānī Date: Before 873 Original Language: Arabic Description The contents of the work can only be known after examination of the surviving fragment in Damascus (Sezgin, GAS i, p. 135). Like other works of this genre, it may have contained stories about Muḥammad's life which showed divine support for his mission, notably his miracles and prophetic foreknowledge of events, and called for Jews and Christians to acknowledge that Islam abrogated their religions.…

 Pamet’ i Žitie blaženago učitelja našego Kostantina Filosofa prěvago nastav’nika sloven’sku jezyku

(1,516 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
Vita ConstantiniMemory and life of our blessed teacher Constantine the Philosopher, the first educator of the Slavonic peopleThe Life of Constantine-Cyril Unknown author Date: Between 873 and 880 Original Language: Old Church Slavonic Description The Life of Constantine-Cyril describes the life of the Christian missionary to the Slavs who became known as St Cyril. Born in 826/27 in Thessaloniki, Constantine was ordained in Constantinople, where he became widely known for his erudition. The greatest achievement for which he is rem…
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