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Pherenikos

(189 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Köln) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Φερένικος). [English version] [1] Thebanischer Politiker Thebaner, Sohn des Kephisodotos, der vor den Dreißig Tyrannen ( triákonta ) geflohene Athener in Theben aufgenommen hatte (Lys. fr. 78). Nach der Besetzung der Kadmeia 382 v.Chr. mußte Ph. als Anhänger der Faktion des Ismenias [1] nach Athen fliehen (Plut. Pelopidas 5,3). Beim Angriff der Emigranten auf Theben im Dez. 379 wartete Ph. mit seinen Leuten in der Thriasischen Ebene, bis eine Schar um Pelopidas die Polemarchen in Theben ausgeschaltet hatte (Plut. Pelopidas 8,1; s. ferner Plut. mor. 576c; 577a). Beck, Hans (Köln) Bib…

Mavia

(96 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[English version] Arabische Fürstin, die um 372 n.Chr. in Palästina und Phönizien Plünderungszüge unternahm. 378 schloß sie mit Valens Frieden und erbat von ihm den Eremiten Moses als Bischof für ihr Volk (Sokr. 4,36,1-12; Soz. 6,38,1-9; Theod. hist. eccl. 4,23). Nach der Schlacht bei Hadrianopolis [3] unterstützte sie die Römer mit Truppen (Amm. 31,16,5; Soz. 7,1,1). Ihre Tochter verheiratete sie mit dem magister equitum Victor (Sokr. 4,36,12). Nach Theophanes (annus mundi 5869 = 1,64,12 deBoor) war sie eine gebürtige Römerin, die in die Gefangenschaft der…

Ablabius /-os

(317 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Schwarcz, Andreas (Wien)
[English version] [1] Flavius A. (4.Jh. n. Chr.) Flavius A. gehörte zu den einflußreichsten Beamten unter Constantinus dem Gr. Er stammte aus Kreta (Lib. or. 42,23), war das Kind armer Nichtchristen (Eun. vit. soph. 6,3,1-7), konvertierte später zum Christentum (Athan. epist. fest. 5). 324/6 n. Chr. war er vicarius von Asia (CIL III 352), 329-337 praef. praet. Orientis, 331 cos. ord. Auf sein Anstiften soll der heidnische Philosoph Sopatros von Constantin hingerichtet worden sein (Eun. vit. soph. 6,2,12; 3,7,13; Zos. 2,40,3). Er war evtl. noch 338 als praef. im Amt, wurde aber noc…

Cerialis

(140 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Princeton)
Röm. Cognomen (auch Caerialis, Caerealis) latinischer Herkunft, abgeleitet von dem Adj. Cerealis (“zu Ceres gehörig”), seit iulisch-claudischer Zeit verbreitet (Schulze, 486f.; ThlL, Onom. 2,344f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [English version] [1] Schwager von Valentinianus I., 4. Jh. n.Chr. Bruder der Iustina, der Gattin Valentinianus' I. (Amm. 28,2,10). Tribunus stabuli (Amm. 30,5,19). Im Jahre 375 n.Chr. half er seinem Neffen Valentinianus II. auf den Thron (Amm. 30,10,5). PLRE 1,197. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [English version] [2] Dux Libyarum 405 n.Chr. Dux Libyarum 4…

Optatus

(514 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[English version] [1] Röm. Cognomen Röm. Cognomen (“der von den Eltern erwünschte Nachkomme”), in der Kaiserzeit weit verbreitet; ebenso häufiger Sklavenname. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 75; 77; 296 2 H. Solin, Die stadtröm. Sklavennamen, Bd. 1, 1994, 110-111. [English version] [2] Flavius O. kaiserlicher Grammatiklehrer, 4. Jh. Erzog als Grammatiklehrer den Sohn des Kaisers Licinius [II 4]. Angeblich besaß er wegen der Schönheit seiner Frau hohen Einfluß unter Constantinus [1] d.Gr. und wurde von diese…

Gaudentius

(730 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
(Γαυδέντιος; Gaudéntios). [German version] [1] G. Philosophus Musician and philosopher Author of an introduction to harmony, Ἁρμονικὴ εἰσαγωγή ( Harmonikḕ eisagōgḗ) ─ probably written in line with Claudius Ptolemy's ─ translated into Latin by Cassiodorus' friend Mutianus (Cassiod. Inst. 2,5,142 Mynors). The incompletely preserved work (in 23 chapters) contains traditional teachings in a slightly modified form, especially from Aristoxenus and the Pythagoreans: voice, sound, interval, modes, composition (1-7), unison…

Agilo

(161 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version]  Alemannic (Amm. Marc. 14,10,8), tribunus stabuli AD 354 (Amm. Marc. loc. cit). His extraordinary promotion from tribunus of a schola palatina in 360 to magister peditum praesentalis (Amm. Marc. 14,10,8; 20,2,5) was due to the high regard in which he was held by Constantius II. After he was deployed in 360/361 on the Tigris against the Persians, he accompanied Constantius on the march against the emperor  Julianus in 361. After Constantius' death, A. made himself available to Julian. He was one of the memb…

Magnus

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
Roman cognomen, which originally designated bodily size or birth order (‘the Elder’), as in the Republican period in the case of Sp. Postumius Albinus M. ( cos. 148 BC) and T. Roscius M. (Cic. Rosc. Am. 17) [1. 275; 3. 47]. As an assumption of the epithet of Alexander [4] ‘the Great’ (ὁ μέγας/ ho mégas, in the sense of great historical importance), first taken by Cn. Pompeius ( cos. 70 and 55) in the 1st cent. BC, then inherited by his sons Cn. and Sex. Pompeius and their descendants. Sex. Pompeius used M. also as a praenomen resp. nomen gentile [4. 364f.]. In the Imperial period, more frequen…

Datianus

(127 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Friend of Libanius (Lib. Ep. 409; 441 and passim). Initially, he was notarius (Lib. Or. 42,24f.), served under Constantine [1] the Great, was later an adviser of Constantius II (Lib. Ep. 114; 490). He became patricius and in AD 358 consul. As comes, in 346, he attempted to persuade Athanasius to return to Alexandria (Athan. Hist. Ar. 22). In 351, he was on the committee which had to decide on Photinus' heresy (Epiphany, adv. haer. 71). In 364, he was part of emperor Jovian's entourage (Philostorgius Hist. eccl. 8,8). He r…

Nemesianus

(583 words)

Author(s): Küppers, Jochem (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] M. Aurelius N. Author of bucolic writings, before AD 284? As the name Carthagin(i)ensis appended in some MSS indicates, N. came from Africa. He wrote four bucolic poems ( Bucolica, Buc.) and a didactic poem about hunting ( Cynegetica, Cyn.), of which verses 1-325 are extant. The dedication of the Cyn. to the emperors Carinus and Numerianus [2] enables dating to shortly before AD 284. Whether N. also wrote Halieutica and Nautica, as maintained by SHA Car. 11,2, is doubtful, as is the authenticity of two fragments of a didactic poem on catching birds ( De aucipio) [11. 313f…

Felix

(619 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen) | Et al.
Roman cognomen (‘The Fortunate One’), in the Republican period initially an epithet of the dictator L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla and his descendants (Cornelius [II 59-61]); in the Imperial period, as a name invoking luck, one of the most common cognomina and the most common slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period, probably a contemporary of  Dioscurides [8], named together with  Anteros in an inscription as a gemari de sacra via [1. 44 and note 40]. He signed the famous sard…

Iulianus

(4,648 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Epithet of many gentilicia [1]. Famous persons: the jurist Salvius I. [1]; the doctor I. [2]; the emperor I. [11], called ‘Apostata’; the bishops I. [16] of Aeclanum and I. [21] of Toledo. [German version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, born about AD 100 in North Africa, died about AD 170; he was a student of  Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) and the last head of the Sabinian law school (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., whose succession of offices is preserved in the inscription from Pupput, provi…

Basilius

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Et al.
(Βασιλεῖος; Basileîos). [German version] [1] Basil the Great Theologian and bishop of Caesarea/Cappadocia. Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) [German version] A. Biography B. (born around 329/330 as the son of a Christian senatorial family who owned large estates) together with his younger brother  Gregorius of Nyssa and his friend  Gregorius of Nazianze were called the three great Cappadocians. His grandmother gave him his first introduction to the Bible and theology along the lines of Origenism. His education contin…

Ursulus

(91 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Comes sacrarum largitionum 355-361, an important aide to the emperor Julianus [11] in his financial distress (Amm. 22,3,7). With Constantius [2] II he visited the ruins of  Amida in 360 AD and levelled criticism at the soldiers' lack of courage (Amm. 20,11,5). Perhaps because of that he was condemned to death by military officers in the court of Chalcedon which Julianus had commissioned after the death of Constantius. Julianus later distanced himself from the verdict (Amm. 22,3,8;  cf.  Lib. Or. 18,152; PLRE 1,988 no. 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Marcellianus

(73 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Son of the praefectus praetorio Galliarum Maximinus [3], through whose influence he was appointed dux Valeriae c. AD 373. He promoted the construction of a fortification ordered by Valentinianus I on the territory of the Quadi. He had their king Gabinius [II 5] treacherously murdered in 374 AD (Amm. Marc. 29,6,3-5; in Zos. 4,16,4 he is called Celestius). PLRE 1, 543f. no. 2 and 190 (Celestius). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Firmus

(304 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Senator in the time of Vespasian Senator attested in a fragmentary inscription from Arretium, CIL XI 1834 = ILS 1000. According to [1] based on AE 1967, 355, the name should be C. Petillius Q. f. Pom. Firmus. As tribunus of legio IV Flavia he took part in a campaign and then received dona militaria. He was quaestor Vespasiani and was honoured by the Senate with ornamenta praetoria. Perhaps a son of  Petillius Cerialis [2. 81ff.]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Bosworth, in: ZPE 39, 1980, 267ff. 2 T. Franke, Die Legionslegaten der röm. Armee ..., 1991. PIR2 F 159. …

Victor

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Et al.
('winner, victor(ious)'). [German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen, only attested from the mid-1st cent. BC (Cic. Att. 14,14,2), but from then one of the commonest bynames, and a name of choice. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 57; 72; 89; 96; 98; 278 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, 1996, 100 f. [German version] [2] Roman epithet for gods (Roman epithet for gods), see Hercules; Iuppiter; Mars; Tibur. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [3] Imperial title Roman Imperial title from the early 4th c…

Aradius Rufinus

(196 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Praef. urbi 304-5, 312-13 AD Q. (?). Member of the African family of the Aradii Rufini, which had arisen to Senate membership early in the 3rd cent. AD. Presumably praef. urbi. already from 4.1.304 - 12.2.305 A. R. held this office again under Maxentius (9.2. - 27.10.312), after he had been consul together with  Ceionius in the last months of 311. After the victory of Constantine over Maxentius, A. was again praefectus urbi from 29.11.312 to 8.12.313. His proving himself under the various emperors was praised by Avianius Symmachus (Symmachus, Ep. 1; 2; 3). Bleckmann, Br…

Hypatius

(397 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Student of Libanius, consularis Palaestinae primae 360/1 AD Student of  Libanius, from whom he received letters (Lib. Ep. 137; 157; 158). In AD 360/361 he was consularis Palaestinae primae (Lib. Ep. 156; 159). PLRE 1, 447 (H.us 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Flavius H. Brother of empress Eusebia, consul 359 AD Brother of empress  Eusebia. Together with his brother Fl. Eusebius he was consul in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,1,1). In 363 he was possibly vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 3,5,8). He was sentenced along with his brother in a trial …

Maximinus

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[English version] [1] M. Daia röm. Kaiser 305-313 n.Chr. Röm. Kaiser 305-313 n.Chr. Als Sohn der Schwester des Galerius [5] und wie dieser in der Dacia ripensis geboren, vielleicht in Šarkamen (h. Serbien), stieg er vom protector zum tribunus auf (Lact. mort. pers. 19,6) und wurde Caesar im Thronwechsel von 305 als Adoptivsohn des Galerius (seither: Galerius Valerius Maximinus). Als Teilherrscher über die Diözese Oriens führte er die Christenverfolgung fort (Eus. HE 8,14,9). Wie Constantinus [1] gab sich M. nicht mit dem Titel eines…
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