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Phasiani

(120 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Φασιανοί; Phasianoí, Xen. An. 4,6,5), a tribe mentioned together with the Chalybes and Taochi that lived on the Phasis, a river that should not be identified with the Phasis in Colchis (modern Rioni/ Georgia) but with the modern Pasinsu (Armenian Basean) that flows into the Araxes [1]/ Aras at Pasinler. The region known as Pasean in Armenian and Basiani in Georgian corresponds approximately to the modern region of Basen/Pasen with the city of Pasinler, c. 60 km east of Erzurum in north-eastern Turkey. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography W.E.D. Allen, A His…

Archaeopolis

(103 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids (Procop. Goth. 4,13 f.; Agath. 2,22 III 5 f.). Heavily fortified capital city of Lazica, on the Doconus (Georgian Techuri) north of the  Phasis; could not be taken in the Byzantine-Persian wars of 550-55; destroyed by the Arabs in the 9th cent. The ruins are in West Georgia in the place today called Nokalakevi (‘Old City’): wall with fortification, palace, thermae, basilica, acropolis. Extensive excavations. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography A. M. Schneider, in: Forsch. und Fortschritte 7, …

Heniochi

(172 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Ἡνίοχοι/ Heníochoi, Ps.-Scyl. 71). In the 5th cent. BC, a large group of tribes on the Caucasian coast of the Pontus - then a densely wooded area with many inlets - between the Zygi and the Achaeans in the north and the San(n)igae in the south.  Pityus/Picunda was founded in the territory of the H. The H. raised cattle and engaged in piracy with light boats (Str. 11,2,14) and were subjugated towards the end of the 4th cent. BC by the Bosporan king  Eumelus [4], who campaigned agai…

Seusamora

(88 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σευσάμορα/Σεισάμορα; Seusámora/ Seisámora). One of three cities of Iberia in the Caucasus mentioned by name in Str. 11,3,5; a fortress on the route through the valley of the Aragus (modern Aragvi) to the Portae Caucasiae (modern Dariali), near the modern town of Cicamuri in Georgia. Excavations: Hellenistic city wall and buildings with ashlar foundations (with cramp insets), clay brick walls above and tiled roofs. Harmozice; Iberia [1] Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography O. Lordkipanidze, Das alte Georgien (Kolchis und Iberien) in Strabons …

Gorgippia

(498 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Colonization | Patricius Military colony in the area of the  Sindi in the north-west Pontus Euxinus (Str. 11,2,10; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γοργιπία; civitas Sindica, Plin. HN 6,1) in the place of modern Anapa. Founded in the late 6th cent. BC [1. 7], the city had a harbour (originally Σινδική, Σινδικὸς λιμήν; Sindikḗ, Sindikòs limḗn, Ps.-Scymn. 888f.; Peripl. m. Eux. 65; Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 29) and was officially named after the Spartocid Gorgippus after its integration into the Bosporus Kingdom (  Regnum …

Sanni

(34 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σάννοι; Sánnoi). In Str. 12,3,18 a term for the tribe formerly called Macrones, to the southwest of Trapezus. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography O. Lordkipanidze, Das alte Georgien in Strabons Geographie, 1996, 158-163.

Mestleta

(277 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Μεστλῆτα; Mestlêta, Ptol. 5,10,8; Agathias Scholastikos 2,22,5: Μεσχιθά, Georgian in Kartlis Cxovreba [1]: Mceta). Capital of Caucasian Iberia [1] from the 3rd cent. BC until the end of the 5th cent. AD (elevation of Tbilisi to capital by Vaxtang Gorgasal) located at the confluence of the Aragus and the Cyrus [5]. Starting-point of the road to the Portae Caucasiae ( Kaukasiai Pylai), after Christianization in the 4th cent. seat of the head of the Georgian Church. The city was surrounded by walls, which were reinforced by Vespasian in …

Caucasia

(192 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] The country between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, with the Great  Caucasus, was settled from the 4th millennium BC onwards and until today is distinctively polyethnic. From the late 3rd millennium onwards, C. became a centre of  bronze metallurgy for the Near Easter; at the end of the 2nd millennium beginning of  iron metallurgy. In the 9th-6th cents. C. was affected by the expansion of the  Urarṭu empire; in northern C. lived  Scythian and  Sarmatian tribes. From the 6th cen…

Soanes

(116 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σοάνες/ Soánes, Latin Suani). First mentioned in Str. 11,2,14; 11,2,19, which locates them in the western Caucasus together with the Phtheirophagi ('fir-cone eaters') above the Colchi (Colchis) and counts them among the tribes who trade in Dioscurias; they were a war-like people who extracted gold from mountain streams (as also in Plin. HN 6,14; 6,30). In the 6th cent. AD the S. came under the sovereignty of Lazica (Procop. Goth 4,16,14; Agathias 4,30; Men. Protektor fr. 3 [1. 177,1…

Chorzene

(64 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Procop. Aed. 3,3; Chorzianene, Procop. Pers. 2,24; Armenian: Xorjean/Xorjayn). Region in Armenia, south of the upper course of the Euphrates on the river Gayl, modern Perisuyu, with Koloberd the capital. Modern Kiĝi in the centre of the Karagöl Daĝları south-west of Theodosiopolis (Erzurum), eastern Turkey. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography R. H. Hewsen (ed.), The Geography of Ananias of Širak, 1991, 19, 154f.

Alazonius

(43 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] River (Str. 11,3; 11,2; Olazanes, Plin. HN 6,29) that springs from the southern slopes of the central Caucasus mountains and flowed into the  Cyrus (Georgian: Alasani). According to Pliny, the border between  Iberia and  Albania [1]. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)

Gymnias

(56 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Γυμνιάς; Gymniás, Xen. An. 4,7,19). Large, heavily populated and affluent town of the Skythēnoí on the left bank of the Harpasus (modern Çoruh su), at the location of or near modern Bayburt. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography O. Lendle, Kommentar zu Xenophons Anabasis, 1995, 270-272.

Iberia

(567 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] [1] Country in the centre of southern Caucasia (Ἰβηρία; Ibēría, Str. 11,3,1-6; Ptol. 5,10,1-2; Georgian Kʿartʿli, Parthian Virčan, Armenian Virkʿ). Country in the centre of southern Caucasia, bordering on the Greater  Caucasus in the north, the Likh Range in the west which runs north-south from the Greater to the Lesser Caucasus, the Kura-Aras Lowland in the east and the Lesser Caucasus in the south, especially the southern and western frontiers being fluid; approximately modern eastern Georgia. Unt…

Pityus

(263 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Christianity | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius (Πιτυοῦς/ Pityoûs: Str. 11,2,14; Ptol. 5,8,10; 5,9,1; Patrum Nicaenorum nomina p. LXII, 113 Gelzer; Zos. 1,32; Theod. Hist. eccl. 9,5,35; Suda 1670; Πιτιῦς/ Pitiûs: Procop. Pers. 2,29,18; Procop. Goth. 8,4,1-6; Procop. Aed. 3,7,8; Pityus: Plin. HN 6,16; Pithiae: Not. Dign. Or. 18,32). Identified with Picunda/Bičvinta in the republic of Abchasia/Georgia (Roman and early Byzantine fort), yet the identification of the town, f…

Orthosia

(320 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Ὀρθωσία; Orthōsía). [German version] [1] Carian community in the interior In Hellenistic times it was one of the smaller Carian communities inland with its own mint; in Str. 14,1,47 it is a katoikía (settlement) near Nysa to the north of the Maeander [2] (Büyük Menderes). In the 2nd cent. AD, O. was given Roman municipal status, in the 5th/6th cents. AD it was the seat of a bishopric for the diocese of Caria with Aphrodisias [1] as its metropolitan see. The ruins of O., which are situated near Donduran in Ortas in the mountai…

Persarmenia

(198 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Armenian Parskahayk'). In AD 387, Armenia Major was divided up, with about a fifth of the territory being allocated to Rome and the greater eastern area to Iran. After the death of Aršak III (Arsaces [5]), the Roman-Byzantine area was established around AD 390 as the province of Armenia interior, while the entire eastern region, called P. by the Byzantines, remained under the rule of the Sassanids. Following the end of Arsakid rule in AD 428, the Sassanids appointed a governor general ( marzpan) to the new capital city of Dvin (Doubios). The Armenians reacted …

Aragus

(48 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Georgian Aragvi (Armenian arag ‘fast’). River (Str. 11,3; 2) with three source rivers (Mtiuleti, Gudamaqari, Psavi) in  Iberia on the southern slopes of the Great Caucasus; the ‘Georgian military road’ ran along the A.; in Mzcheta it flows into the  Cyrus. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)

Nicephorius

(173 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] According to Plin. HN 6,129 ( Nikephorio) it was, along with the Parthenius, a major Armenian tributary of the Tigris. According to Tac. Ann. 15,4,2 ( Nikephorius), it flowed through Tigranocerta. Its identification depends on the location of Tigranocerta, which has hitherto been sought at Silvan (Martyropolis/Mayafarikin/Nprkert) [1]. But taking into account an Armenian historical work of the 2nd half of the 5th cent., called Buzandaran Patmut'iwnk' 4,24 [2], it was rather at Arzan [3]. In the former case…

Apsilai

(54 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[English version] Kaukasisches Volk an der nordöstl. Schwarzmeerküste um die Mündung des Koraxes (h. Kodori) südl. der Abaskoi (Plin. 6,14; Arr. per. p. E. 11,3; Prok. BG 4,3; Agath. 2,15; 4,15; Geogr. Rav. 1,17). Im Gebiet der A. lag Dioskurias/Sebastopolis. Der A.- König Iulianus erhielt von Hadrian die Insignien. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)

Kobuleti-Pičvnari

(46 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[English version] Ort an der Kolchisküste, ca. 20 km nördl. des h. Batumi. Umfangreiche Nekropole aus dem 6.-2. Jh.v.Chr. mit att.-sf. und rf. Keramik; die synchrone griech. Siedlung (Matium? Plin. nat. 6,12) ist bisher nicht nachgewiesen. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography D. Braund, Georgia in Antiquity, 1995, 109-117.
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