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Catholicos

(202 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
Of Antiochian origin, “catholicos” is the title of some Orthodox or ancient Eastern archbishops (Bishop, Episcopate) who have supervision over scattered and relatively independent areas. Among the Jacobites in Persia, the term “maphrian” is also found. Where full autonomy is achieved or claimed, the title is associated with that of patriarch in the Orthodox Church of Georgia and the Assyrian Church of the East. It is used alone for the leaders of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church and of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Among the …

Acathistus

(161 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
The Acathistus (from Greek, meaning “not [sung] sitting”), a Byzantine hymn to the Virgin Mary sung while standing, takes the form of an alphabetic acrostic and is thought to have been first composed by Romanus Melodus (6th cent.). The original served as a model for many similar hymns, especially in Russia. At times having considerable influence in the West, the Acathistus has been illustrated in picture-cycles since the 14th century. See Mariology; Mary, Devotion to Peter PlankBibliography A. Chadzinikolau, “Akathistos Hymnos,” RBK  1.94–96 G. Dévai, “Akathistos–Prooemia in …

Synaxarion

(335 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
From the word synagō, “collect,” the synaxarion is a collection for the church year of short lives and notices of the saints (§5.1) that, in the Eastern churches, can be used either in public worship or privately (Orthodox Christianity; Orthodox Church). From the 9th century onward, the literary genus of the synaxarion has merged into that of church calendars and martyrologies (Martyrs; Martyrs, Acts of the). There are examples in Byzantium and Italy and Greece, and also in the Near East, though usually in translation from the Greek. Modern Greek usage has added the texts to the li…

Pentarchy

(304 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
“Pentarchy” (lit. “the rule of five”) denotes the widespread theory in the Greek East that the five patriarchs of Rome, Constantinople (Byzantium), Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem are jointly responsible for oversight of the church (Church Government). These patriarchs occupy the seats that were given a special preeminence by the ecumenical councils of the fourth and fifth centuries. The theory is first found in the laws of Emperor Justinian (527–65). It was given fuller theological development by the theologians of the eighth and ninth centuries …

Archimandrite

(149 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
“Archimandrite” (from Greek roots meaning “head of a sheepfold [ mandra]”) refers to a dignitary ranking below a bishop. It was used from the 4th century for certain heads of monasteries (Orthodox or united with Rome). After the 6th century it was reserved for leaders of groups of monasteries and at first restricted to certain abbots. Since the 18th century the title has been conferred on other monks or unmarried priests only loosely connected to the monastic state (as a rhasophore, or novice), either in an honorary way or as a promotion on the way to the episcopal office. See Orthodox Church Pe…

Patriarch, Patriarchate

(1,573 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
1. Biblical Usage The LXX coined the Gk. word patriarchēs, which derives from patria (family, tribe). In the OT it may be used for any group leaders, but in the NT it refers specifically to Abraham (Heb. 7:4), the 12 sons of Jacob (Acts 7:8–9), and David (2:29). 2. Jewish History From the third century to the fifth, the nasi (prince), the head of the Tiberias Sanhedrin, was called patriarchēs in Greek documents. The office, which was a hereditary one in the family of the editor of the Mishnah, Judah ha-Nasi (d. ca. 220), lasted until after 415 and was recognized and supported by t…

Theodoros Graptos und Theophanes Graptos

(268 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] . Die beiden Brüder wurden um 775 als Söhne des Priesters Ionas in Palästina geboren. Wie ihr Vater wurden sie Mönche im Sabas-Kloster. Wohl von Patriarch Thomas I. von Jerusalem (807–820) auf die Reise geschickt, wurden sie in Konstantinopel festgehalten und gerieten in die Wirren des 815 unter Kaiser Leon V. (813–820) erneut aufgeflammten Bilderstreits (Bilderkult: VI.), in dessen Verlauf sie als erklärte Ikonodulen im Gesicht mit Spottversen tätowiert wurden (»γραπτοι´«/»graptoi«). Theophanes wurde als Dichter zahlreicher gottesdienstlicher K…

Troparion

(263 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] Troparion, Bez. eines gesonderten Gesangs des byz.-orth. Gottesdienstes, dessen Herkunft und urspr. Bedeutung umstritten ist. Die Charakteristika des T., das als hymnographische Gattung formal nur schwer vom Sticheron und vom Kathisma abgrenzbar ist, haben im Lauf der Zeit merklichen Schwankungen unterlegen. Urspr. scheint ein T. ein als Refrain dienender kurzer Text gewesen zu sein, der den Vortrag eines Psalms einrahmte und/oder ihn unterteilte. Eine solche Art des T. ist im Ve…

Typikon

(158 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] . Das Wort T., das an sich jede fixierte Ordnung meint, wurde bis ins 15.Jh. oftmals von Gründern orth. Klöster zur Bez. der speziellen Strukturen und Obliegenheiten ihrer Stiftungen gebraucht. Seit dem 11.Jh. hat sich das T. jedoch vorrangig zu einer Rubrikensammlung (Rubrik) entwickelt, die den Ablauf des Gottesdienstes das Jahr hindurch regelt. Seine greifbaren Anfänge reichen in das 7.Jh. zurück und stammen aus dem paläst. Sabas-Kloster. Seit dem 9.Jh. dominierte das T. des S…

Sabas-Kloster

(260 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] . 483/490 vom hl. Sabas in einem Ausläufer des Kidrontals 9 km südöstlich von Jerusalem gegründet als Laura, bestehend aus Einzelhöhlen im Fels mit einem Gemeinschaftskloster als Zentrum, erlebte das S. bis zur pers. Invasion 614 trotz seiner starken Involvierung in die origenistischen Streitigkeiten eine erste geistige Blüte (Cyrill von Skythopolis) und war maßgeblich an jener Ausformung des kirchl. Stundengebets beteiligt (Sabas-Typikon), die später in der gesamten chalcedonisc…

Synodikon

(255 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] . Am ersten Fastensonntag des Jahres 843 wurde der Bevölkerung von Konstantinopel feierlich kundgetan, daß die Häresie des Ikonoklasmus nach langen Kämpfen endgültig verurteilt und besiegt sei. Diese Proklamation ist in der orth. Kirche zur bleibenden jährlichen Feier geworden, die dem ersten Fastensonntag, der zuvor dem Gedächtnis des Mose und aller Propheten gewidmet gewesen war, den Charakter des »Sonntags der Rechtgläubigkeit« (Orthodoxie) verliehen hat. In allen Bischofskath…

Germanos

(178 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] (Strēnopoulos; Sep 15, 1872, Bithynia, Turkey – Jan 23, 1951, London), metropolitan of Thyateira with seat in London and a leading figure in the ecumenical movement. After attending the theological seminary at Chalkis and earning his doctorate in Leipzig, Germanos was appointed professor at Chalkis in 1904 and rector of the same in 1907, retaining his rectorship even after his consecration as bishop in 1912. In 1922, Patriarch Meletius Metaxakis dispatched him to Western Europe as…

Synodicon

(255 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] On the first Sunday in Lent in 843, after years of struggle, the population of Constantinople were solemnly informed that the heresy of iconoclasm had finally been condemned and defeated. In the Orthodox Church, this proclamation became the occasion of a permanent annual festival: the first Sunday in Lent, formerly dedicated to Moses and all the prophets, has been observed as the “Sunday of Orthodoxy” ever since. In all episcopal cathedrals, the Synodicon is recited on this day in a special rite: a lengthy doxology is followed by a renunciation of all…

Chernivtsi

(383 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] (Rumanian Cernăuţi, Russian Černovcy). After the incorporation of Bukovina into the Habsburg Empire in 1775, Czernowitz became the seat of the Orthodox bishop of Radautz (Radauti); while its ancient title was retained, it was joined to the Serbian Habsburg metropolitan see of Karlowitz (Sremski Karlovci). In the spirit of Josephinism, the existing monasteries were suppressed and their assets transferred to a so-called religious endowment to the benefit …

Nikolai Kasatkin, Saint

(163 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] (Aug 1, 1836, Berezovskij, district Bel’sk – Feb 3, 1912, Tokyo), founder and first archbishop of the Orthodox Church of Japan. In 1860 he graduated from the seminary in St. Petersburg (II); he worked in Japan from 1861, first as priest of the Russian consulate in Hakodate and, after the granting of religious tolerance in 1873, as missionary; from 1880, as bishop. He achieved an exemplary inculturation of the Orthodox Church in Japanese language and mentality. A minority church wa…

Pectoral Cross

(175 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] The pectoral cross represents a special development of the encolpion ( pectorale), otherwise usually rectangular or oval, which Christians as well as pagans and Jews used as an ornament in antiquity. Although long worn by other secular and religious notables, by the 12th century the encolpion and pectoral cross were becoming increasingly a mark of episcopal office. Since 1570 the pectoral cross has been part of the mandatory attire of bishops. Since the 18th century, priests in the Orthodox …

Typicon

(169 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] Until well into the 15th century, the term typicon, which in principle can mean any fixed order, was often used by founders of Orthodox monasteries to denote the structures and offices peculiar to their foundations. Since the 11th century, however, the term has been applied primarily to a collection of rubrics governing the course of worship throughout the year. Its beginnings can be traced back to the 7th century and the Sabas Monastery. From the 9th century on, the dominant typicon was …

Troparion

(295 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] Troparion, name of a special chant in Byzantine Orthodox worship; its origin and original meaning are disputed. Over the centuries, the characteristics of a troparion have been subject to considerable variation. As a hymnographic genre, a troparion is hard to distinguish formally from a sticheron and a kathisma. Originally a troparion appears to have been a short text serving as a refrain, framing and/or subdividing the recitation of a psalm. Such troparia have been preserved in c…

Theodore of Studios, Saint

(335 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] (759, Constantinople – Nov 11, 826, island of Prinkipo [modern Büyükada]) (feast day Nov 11), influential reformer of monastic and liturgical life, ecclesiastical politician, prolific writer and poet. His family moved in the highest social circles. Led by his uncle Platon, in 781 he along with his parents, siblings, and other family members turned the family estate of Sakkudion in Bithynia into a monastery; he was ordained to the priesthood in 787 and served as abbot after 794. In…

James, Liturgy of Saint

(281 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] James, Liturgy of Saint, is the indigenous eucharistic liturgy of the Holy Land, named after the Lord's brother, James, verifiable as the foundation for the fourth and fifth mystagogical catecheses of Cyril of Jerusalem or John of Jerusalem; passages are also already evident in Eusebius of Caesarea and in the eucharistic prayer in Origen. In terms of content, the sequence, formulated strictly in accordance with salvation history, of post-sanctus, words of institution, anamnesis, and epiclesis, and the extraordinary scope of the intercessions are n…
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