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Helmet

(1,468 words)

Author(s): Maaß, Michael (Karlsruhe) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] A. General Helmets protect and impress. Their design therefore mostly went beyond purely purposeful weapon engineering ( Weapons). Individual decoration served as insignia of rank and standard decoration as a sign of collective power. The representation emerged in magnificent parade helmets as an exclusive aspect, likewise in copies made of clay used as burial objects [1]. The leather cap (e.g. late Roman [2. K 120, 121]) was timeless; the words κυνέη ( kynéē) and galea (both with the meaning ‘dog's coat’) bear witness to this. The protective function…

Waldalgesheim

(145 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts The tomb of a Celtic 'princess' from the second half of the 4th century BC was discovered in 1869 at W. (in the district of Mainz-Bingen); originally, it was probably covered by a large tumulus which has not survived. Of the rich surviving furnishing, ornate gold neck, arm and leg jewellery, parts of ornate belts, a Celtic bronze jug, a bronze bucket from Campania and parts of a two-wheeled war chariot are remarkable. The Celtic ornamentat…

Hemmoor

(82 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] (Cuxhaven district). Cremation burial fields of the early Imperial era (2nd/3rd cents. AD) with bronze or brass vessels that were used as urns. The finding-place gave its name to the typical Hemmoor buckets, some of which have richly decorated rims and attachments; They come from Roman workshops in the Rhineland.  Germanic archaeology;  Urna Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography M. Erdrich, Zu den Messingeimern vom Hemmoorer Typ, in: R. Busch (ed.), Rom an der Niederelbe, 1995, 71-80 H. Willers, Die röm. Bronzeeimer von H., 1901.

Crafts, Trade

(7,461 words)

Author(s): van de Mieroop, Marc (New York) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Bieg, Gebhard (Tübingen) | Burford-Cooper, Alison (Ann Arbor) | Et al.
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt Crafts in Egypt, in Syria-Palestine and in Mesopotamia can be best categorized by the materials employed: stone, bone and other animal products, clay and glass, metals, wood, wool and flax and leather, as well as reed and plant fibres. These were used to make objects of the most varied kinds, from cooking-pots to finely worked pieces of jewellery. For the building trade, stone, clay, reed and wood were important. For the investigation of the various forms of…

Bad Nauheim

(149 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Located in the Wetterau region, the town is rich in saltwater springs that were exploited already in the late Celtic period (1st cent. BC) as saltworks with remnants of briquetage (grading basins, ovens, clay barrels, forming vessels). There are still traces of settlements in the city area such as a fortification of a section on the Johannisberg, a large field of cremation graves, and a hoard of Celtic coins that all bear witness to the to…

Gold

(3,476 words)

Author(s): Riederer, Josef (Berlin) | Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
I. General [German version] A. Gold and gold deposits Gold is a soft precious metal that can be shaped well mechanically and so can be worked easily into sheets and wires, but it has a relatively high melting point at 1063°C that makes casting difficult. It is relatively rare in nature where it is present in the form of gold aggregates in solid rock from which it is extracted through mining methods, or it is present in the form of gold particles or grains in sandy deposits of weathered primary rock, from…

Silver

(2,474 words)

Author(s): Riederer, Josef (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Definition Silver (ἀργύριον/ argýrion, ἄργυρος/ árgyros; Latin argentum) is a precious metal, which in Antiquity was extracted primarily by smelting silver-bearing ores of lead. Four different kinds occur naturally: 1. as pure silver; 2. as silver ore; 3. as a component of galena, the only economically interesting ore of lead; 4. in alloy with gold, i.e. as electrum (Elektron), in which the gold content can amount to less than 30 %. Pure silver is rare and its surface corrodes, so that…

Tumulus

(4,351 words)

Author(s): Steimle, Christopher (Erfurt) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Jung, Reinhard (Berlin) | Hülden, Oliver (Tübingen) | Naso, Alessandro (Udine) | Et al.
(Latin 'hill', 'funerary mound', pl. tumuli; Greek τύμβος/ týmbos, σῆμα/ sêma; χῶμα/ chôma). I. Definition, distribution, function [German version] A. Definition Tumulusis a general term for a mound, as a rule artificial and usually round or oval in plan, associated with a burial ('burial mounds', as opposed, e.g., to prehistoric settlement mounds). Tumulus burial (‘mound burial’) describes all burials that have been covered by a mound. Tumulus is also used in archaeology as a technical term for burial mounds outsid…

Fortifications

(2,871 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Miller, Martin (Berlin) | Blech, Michael (Madrid) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg)
[German version] I. Greece After the massive Mycenaean fortified palaces had been abandoned, several centuries passed before larger fortifications were again built in Greece. During the Geometric Period fortification construction in the motherland remained modest. Simple structures were built that left few if any remains, and the ruins of Mycenaean fortifications sufficed for protection requirements. However, citadels (acropoleis), peninsulas, and other topographically suitable locations were fortif…

Minting

(2,959 words)

Author(s): von Kaenel, Hans-Markus (Frankfurt/Main) | Klose, Dietrich (Munich) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
I. Classical Antiquity [German version] A. Coins and coinage. General Coins, a particular, developmentally late form of money, are handy, usually are round pieces of metal made of gold, electron, silver, copper or copper alloys. The metal exhibits a prescribed composition (fineness), and the coins a weight defined by the applicable standard (Coinage, standards of). Coins bear signs on their obverse and the reverse: a design and usually an inscription. Through their characteristics, coins could be recognized as the product of those authorities (society or ruler) wh…

Arras Culture

(79 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Later Iron Age culture (4th-1st cents. BC), named after a site in eastern Yorkshire (England) and recognized primarily by grave mounds with rectangular enclosures ( Funeral architecture;  Burial). In rich warrior graves  war chariots are typical burial goods. Besides contacts with Celtic cultures on the continent ( Celtic archaeology), emphasis is increasingly placed on strong indigenous traditions. Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography B. Cunliffe, Iron Age Communities in Britain, 1974 I. M. Stead, Iron Age Cemeteries in East Yorkshire, 1991.

Großromstedt

(158 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] (district of Apolda/Thüringen). Germanic burial site of the pre-Roman Iron Age that was excavated between 1907 and 1913. It comprises over 600 graves containing cremation burials from the 2nd half of the last pre-Christian cent. and the time of Christ as well as some graves from the 2nd/3rd cents. AD. The graves contain typical ceramics ( Situla, wheelmade pottery), weapons ( Sword,  Shield and lance) as well as  fibulae that are taken to be stereotypes for the subdivision of this…

Sanzeno

(119 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Site (in Nonsberg - Val di Non near Trento/South Tyrol) which gave its name to an archaic group of finds (group 'Fritzens-S.') from the Early Iron Age (5th-1st cents. BC); S. was a fortified settlement rich in material finds revealing local South Alpine and Etruscan elements (the adorned bronze containers of the 'Situla Circle,' ceramic forms) as well as Celtic influences (iron gear, weapons). S. and the corresponding group of finds is believed to have belonged to the Raetian population of the central Alpine region. Raeti, Raetia; Situla Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliogr…

Hochdorf

(361 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria Close to the south-west German town of Eberdingen-H., a levelled large grave mound was excavated in 1978-1979 that proved to be one of the few unrobbed Celtic  princely graves of the late  Hallstatt culture (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC) investigated in modern times. The hill was surrounded by a stone ring with a diameter of 57 m and originally had a height of c. 6 m. In the north there was a ramp-like access that led to the 2 m deep, central tomb chamber. The chamber consisted of a double-walled block constru…

Marne culture

(298 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic cultural group in the early La Tène period (5th cent. BC) in the catchment area of the rivers Marne, Seine and Aisne (Champagne). French scholars also call it ‘Aisne-Marne culture’; already in the 19th cent., it was called ‘Marnia’ on the basis of numerous grave finds (over a hundred necropoleis with several thousand graves), being an independent group at the northwest edge of the early La Tène culture. Typical are especially the full body burials in shallow grave necropole…

Sapropelite

(114 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] A dark-brown raw material of organic sapropel carbon with a dull shine, similar to jet or lignite, occurring in Bohemia and Moravia; it was worked, primarily by the Celts (6th-1st cents. BC), for jewel rings. Unworked and half-worked pieces in workshop finds, e.g. on the Heuneburg (6th cent.) and in the oppidum of Manching (2nd/1st cents. BC) show that jewellery was produced by cutting and carving and by turning on a lathe. Crafts, trade; Celtic archaeology; Jewellery Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography O. Rochna, Zur Herkunft der Manchinger Sapropelit-Ring…

Murus Gallicus

(201 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Building technique for defensive walls of Gaulish oppida (Oppidum), described in Caes. B Gall. 7,23 and regarded as particularly resistant to siege engines. There is archaeological evidence for muri Gallici in several places in Gaul (Basilia/Basel), but they occur only sporadically east of the Rhine in late Celtic oppida (e.g. Manching). They consist of horizontal beams laid lengthwise and across, which were built up to form a timber-framed structure (cf. fig.). The lower beams were firmly joined with large i…

Bibracte

(176 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Celts | Oppidum Oppidum of the Haedui in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis (modern Mont-Beuvray), located on a hilltop, separated by valleys from the rest of the Morvan massif. In 58 BC, B. was the location of Caesar's victory over the Helvetii (Caes. B Gall. 1,23; 7,55; 7,63). Excavations particularly since 1984. More recent investigations have above all opened up the (pre-)Caesarean B., with its Celtic workshops and dwellings, as well as typical fortifications (walls built using the murus gallicus techniq…

Jastorf Culture

(87 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Term for culture groups of the pre-Roman Iron Age in North Germany ( Germanic archaeology, with map), derived from the urnfields of Jastorf, in the district of Ülzen (Lower Saxony). The burial complexes and furnishings with jewellery, pottery, and occasionally also weapons and equipment, are typical of the Germanic Jastorf culture. It is the first iron-working culture in the nordic area.  Iron;  Jevenstedt Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography H-J. Häßler (ed.), Ur-und Frühgesch. in Niedersachsen, 1991, 380 G. Schwantes, Die Urnenfriedhöfe in Niedersachs…

Basilia

(291 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Walser, Gerold (Basle)
This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Basle). [German version] I. Celtic The Roman B. was preceded by a Celtic settlement of  Helvetii and  Rauraci. First, a large, open settlement existed in the late 2nd cent. in the Rhine plain (Basel-Gasfabrik), to which also belonged a field of cremation graves. During the early 1st cent., the Münsterhügel housed an  oppidum fortified with murus gallicus, which perhaps was vacated when the Helvetii left the area in 58 BC.  Fortifications;  Celtic archaeology Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography E. Major, Gallische Ansiedlung mit…
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