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(383 words)

Author(s): Picard, Ch.
, a region of the southwest of al-Andalus (the modern Algarve) and also the town of Ocsonoba (Faro), its chef-lieu until the 4th/10th century. The name (with varying orthographies, e.g. Uks̲h̲ūnya in Ibn Muzayn in the 5th/11th century, Ak̲h̲s̲h̲anba in Yāḳūt) derives from the earlier Ossonoba . The correspondance in name of region and chef-lieu goes back to the Arab administrative tradition in which the kūra was often known by the name of its capital. When the town changed its name ¶ in the 5th/11th century to S̲h̲antamariyyat al-G̲h̲arb, Uks̲h̲ūnuba mostly denoted the province. From the…

Ḳaṣr Abī Dānis

(451 words)

Author(s): Picard, Ch.
, a settlement of Islamic Portugal, revealed by archaeological excavations on the ancient site of Salacia, to the south of Lisbon, and on the site of the present convent of Aracoeli, the modern Alcácer do Sal. It dates from the 3rd/9th century, when coastal defences were being erected against the Viking attacks which had begun in 230/844 [see al-mad̲j̲ūs ]. The fortress occupied a major strategic site, up-river from the mouth of the Sado. According to Ibn Ḥazm and Ibn Ḥayyān, it was in the course of the fitna in this century, during the reign of the Umayyad amīr

S̲h̲antamariyyat al-G̲h̲arb

(1,113 words)

Author(s): Picard, Ch.
, a town of ¶ mediaeval al-Andalus, the modern Faro, capital of the Algarve province [see g̲h̲arb al-andalus ] of southern Portugal. It passed under Arab control in S̲h̲awwāl 94/June 713 after the capture of Seville. Both the town and the region took on the name of Roman antiquity, Ossónoba, in the form Uk̲h̲s̲h̲ūnuba or better, Uks̲h̲ūnuba. Then from the 4th/10th century there appears the name S̲h̲antamariyya or S̲h̲anta Mārīlat al-G̲h̲arb, and, in the next century, S̲h̲. Hārūn, the name of one of the masters of the…


(872 words)

Author(s): Picard, Ch.
, the Arabic name of the modern town of Evora in southern Portugal. The Liberalitas Julia of the Roman period had become Elbora or Erbora in the time of the Visigoths, a name revived unchanged, in the form of Yābura, by Arab authors. The history of the Arab town poses numerous enigmas. Very little is known of its history from the time of the Arab conquest to the beginning of the 10th century. Ibn al-Faraḍī makes it the seat of a ḳāḍī , and the city was located in the district of Beja, capital of a d̲j̲und and seat of a governor since the conquest. Al-Rāzī alludes to i…