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Caesarodunum

(239 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (Καισαρόδουνον; Kaisaródounon). Capital of the Celtic  Turoni (Ptol. 2,8,14; Tab. Peut. 2,3; Notitia Galliarum 3); probably since Augustus the civitas Turonorum on a bluff on the left bank of the  Liger (the modern Loire), about 16 km above its confluence with the Cares (the modern Cher); the modern Tours (Dép. Indre-et-Loire). The Celtic settlement was directly opposite on the right bank of the river; in the 1st cent. AD it was transferred to the plain between th…

Syn(n)ada

(97 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σύν(ν)αδα/ Sýn(n)ada; Lat. Synnas). City in Greater Phrygia (Diod. 20,107,3 f.; Cic. Fam. 3,8,3; 5 f.; 15,4,2; Cic. Att. 5,16,2; 5,20,1; Liv. 38,15,14; 45,34,11 f.; Synnas: Plin. HN 5,105,8; Tab. Peut. 9,4; Suda s. v. Συνᾴδων: Sýnada), modern Şuhut. At the village of Docimeum (Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.: Dokímeia kṓmē) in S.'s territory there were quarries in which an alabaster-like marble (with map) was obtained, named by the local inhabitants after Docimeum, and by the Romans after S. (Str. 12,8,13 f.: Synnadikòs líthos). Roman necropoleis, rock graves, and r…

Pedasa

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Persian Wars | Delian League (τὰ Πήδασα/ tà Pḗdasa, Πήδασος/ Pḗdasos). City of the Leleges in Caria in the mountainous country to the north of Halicarnassus (Str. 13,1,59; 7,7,2) near Gökçeler, to the east of the modern village of Bitez, which has preserved the name P. In individual cases accounts of P. give rise to doubt as to whether P., Pidasa or Pedason is meant (cf. [1. vol. 1, 535-538]). In 545/4 BC in the Lide mountains near P. (modern…

Plataniston

(46 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πλατανιστών; Platanistṓn). River in southern Arcadia (Paus. 8,39,1), rising on Mount Tetrazio (1389 m high), flowing north through  Lycosura and east of Calivia Carion into the left side of the Alpheius [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. P. (2), RE 20, 2335.

Tarusco

(74 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in Gallia Narbonensis City in Gallia Narbonensis in the territory of the Salluvii (Str. 4,1,3; 12: Ταρούσκων; Ptol. 2,10,15), modern Tarascon. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, Gallia Narbonensis, 1988, 300. [German version] [2] City in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages City in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages on the northern slopes of the Pyrenees (Pyrene [2]; Plin. HN 3,37), modern Tarascon sur Ariège. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Symaethum

(122 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σύμαιθος/ Sýmaithos, Latin Symaethum). Border river between Leontini and Catane (Thuc. 6,65,2) in the east of Sicily. It rises according to Str. 6,2,2 like the Pantacyas at Mount Etna (Aetna [1]) and flows into the sea to the north of Catane (Ptol. 3,4,9; cf. Plin. HN 3,89). The modern Simeto, however, which can without doubt be identified with the S., rises on Mount Nebrodes and its mouth is to the south of Catane; the displacement of the mouth can be explained by the activities of…

Hodometron

(106 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ὁδόμετρον; hodómetron). Hero (Dioptra 34) and Vitruvius (10,9) describe a mechanical device for distance measurement on land in which a connection of endless screws and sprockets mounted on different levels, driven by a cart wheel, transmits each rotation of the wheel to a display system in a retarding manner (Hero: pointer; Vitruvius: falling balls). The hodometron was sufficient for one day trip and then had to be put back to the initial position. Vitruvius knew of a corresponding device for sea trips based on a bucket wheel. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliograp…

Insulae Gorgades

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Unlocated archipelago mentioned by Pliny (HN 6,200; Mela 3,99: Dorcades), who refers to  Xenophon [8] of Lampsacus (location of the island two days' journey from the African west coast; name derived from the Gorgons who once lived there) and  Hanno [1] (characterization of the inhabitants as savages; their women are said to have hairy skin). In Hanno's report, which is available in a much altered form (Peripl. 18, GGM 1,1-14), the women of the Insulae Gorgades are called Goríllai (Γορίλλαι, possibly a misspelling of the Greek translation for Gorgades). Olshausen, Ecka…

Hyporon

(28 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Bruttium (bronze coins around 300 BC: HN 105), probably identical to Hipporum in It. Ant. 115. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 949.

Leucosyri

(273 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Λευκόσυροι; Leukósyroi, ‘White Syrians’, meaning and origin of the term are unclear). Indigenous inhabitants (App. Mith. 292; Σύριοι/ Sýrioi, Hdt. 1,6,1; 2,104; Ἀσσύριοι/ Assýrioi, Dionys. Per. 975) considered by the Greeks as an ethnic entity of the Anatolian northern part of the region Assyria (Λευκοσυρία/ Leukosyría, schol. vetera ad Apoll. Rhod. 196,9; 198,10; 201,6; Λευκοσυριακή/ Leukosyriakḗ, 200,1; Λευκοσυρική/ Leukosyrikḗ, 198,3). According to Ps.-Scyl. 89, the area where they lived extended from the river Thermodon (modern Term…

Mare Nostrum

(941 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (μεγάλη θάλασσα/ megálē thálassa, Mediterranean). Because of various earth movements that are still ongoing (rising, sinking; formation of numerous islands, e.g. the archipelago between Greece and Anatolia and Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearic Islands; still active volcanoes and earthquakes) the appearance of the Mare Nostrum (MN) changed constantly (connections to the various adjoining seas, e.g. the Atlantic, the Miocene seas in the northern foothills of the Al…

Nesactium

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Settlement in Istria at modern Vizac̆e, approx. 8 km north-east of modern Pula/Croatia (Plin. HN 3,129). Suburb of the Histri on a bank with a sanctuary dated to 1,000 BC; conquered by the Romans in 177 BC (Liv. 41,11,1: oppidum Nesattium). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography K. Mihovilić, Rezultati sondanog istraivanja u sjevernoj bazilici u Nezakciju (1977 godine), in: Histria Archaeologica 15/6, 1984/5, 5-29  M. Zaninović, Apsorus, Crexa e Nesactium. Badò sulla rotta marittima adriatica, in: Quaderni dell' Antiquità di Venetia 10, 1994, 179-188  V.Ved…

Himeras

(83 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of two rivers in Sicily which, rising not far from one another in opposite directions on S. Salvatore (1910 m) near Polizzi (modern Imera Settentrionale, Imera Meridionale), were regarded as a single river and as the north-south central line of the island, although the eastern …

Gaeson

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γαίσων; Gaísōn). Small river on the southern slopes of the Mycale mountains (Samsun Dağı), cf. Hdt. 9,97; Mela 1,87 ( Gaesus); Plin. HN 5,113 ( Gessus). Scolopoeis (Σκολοπόεις) with a temple of the Eleusinian Demeter was located at the G.; it was the location of t…

Isindus

(30 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴσινδος; Ísindos, Ἴσινδα; Ísinda). Place name ocurring with these two name forms only in Steph. Byz. s.v. Isindos as a town in  Ionia. …

Sebaste

(121 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σεβαστή/ Sebast ). City in Phrygia, founded under Augustus by means of synoikismós (involving, i.a., Διοσκωπητεῖς/ Dioskōpēteís, probably also Φλημεῖς/ Phlēmeís; [1. 85 f. no. 16]) on the eastern edge of the valley of the Sinder (Σινδρός/ Sindrós, coins HN 684; modern Banaz river) (IGR IV 635; 682 l. 18). Hellenistic wall remains at modern Selçikler, 2 km to the southwest of Sivaslı (cf. name!) suggest that a polis already existed there. A portion of the ancient road to the east of Selçikler has been discovered. Bishopric in Late Antiquity (Hierocles, Synekdemos 6…

Paryadres

(128 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Παρυάδρης/ Paryádrēs, Lat. Pariades, Parihedri montes). Part of the Alpide belt in the region of Pontus and Armenia, which may be roughly identified with the eastern part of the North Anatolian border range (Karadeniz Dağları, with the Kaçkar Dağı, 3937 m) and the Alborz (with the Damāvand, 5604 m). In the north, the P. slopes down over a narrow coastal plain to the Pontos Euxeinos (river valleys: Halys, Iris [3]); to the south, it slopes down along the earth…

Meris

(141 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ἡ μερίς; merís, ‘part, portion’, Verb μερίζειν; merízein). As a term in Greek administrative language, meris describes any type of systematic division and is used e.g. generally in Hellenistic administrative practice, especially e. g. in the Ptolemaic-Roman administration of Egypt in which the Arsinoite

Grumentum

(91 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Coloniae Town in Lucania ( Lucani) where the Sora (modern Sciaura) flows into the Aciris (modern Agri) (cf. Str. 6,1,3; Ptol. 3,1,70); ruins 1.5 km east of Grumento. Place of fierce battles in the 2nd Punic War (Liv. 23,37,10; 27,41,3) and in the Social War (cf. App. B Civ. 1,41). Municipium, tribus Pomptina ( regio III). Pliny s…
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