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Eurotas

(200 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Εὐρώτας; Eyrṓtas, ‘the abundantly-flowing’). The 82 km-long river (mythological derivation from king E. in Paus. 3,1,1f.) rises with its source-streams on the flat valley-watershed of the Alpheius between Mt. Parnon and Mt. Taygetus on the Asea plain, and in the north-western foothills of the Arcadian Mt. Parnon (the presumption of subterranean links in the region of its source between the E. and Lake Taka, made in Paus. 8,44,4, is improbable), and, following a tectonic depression (‘the E. trough’), enters the 18 km-long and c. 10 km-wide Laconian basin north o…

Philadelphia

(469 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Φιλαδέλφεια/ Philadélpheia). [German version] [1] Lydian town founded by Seleucus I This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Education / Culture Lydian town founded by Seleucus I (cf. SEG 35, 1985, 1170 [2. 180139; 3. no. 20]) or by Attalus [5] II Philadelphos (who definitely gave the town its name). It lay at the northeast foot of Mt. Tmolus in the fertile valley of the river Cogamis (cf. the coins in HN 655, present-day Alaşehir Çayı), a southern tributary of the Hermus, in southern Catacecaumene [1] on the …

Limes

(12,382 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. General In the religious and administrative theory of the land surveyors, the Latin word limes denoted the path marking the boundary between two pieces of land, while in military and political usage (Tac. Ann. 1,50; Frontin. Str. 1,3,10) it meant the border between Roman and non-Roman territory (SHA Hadr. 12). Over recent years, research has led the military connotation of the term limes, which has been used almost exclusively from the 19th cent., to be expanded to comprehend also the historico-geographical and socio-economic fields. Where the limites were origin…

Netum

(172 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νέητον, Νεαίτιον/ Néēton, Neaítion; Latin Netum). City of the Siculi in the southeastern part of Sicilia (Plin. HN 3,91: Netini; Ptol. 3,4,13), modern-day Noto Antica, located on the upper course of the Asinaro on a steep, heart-shaped bluff (420 m high), 16 km to the northwest of Noto. At the beginning of the 1st Punic War in 263 BC N. was awarded by Rome to the kingdom of Syracuse (Diod. 23,4,1: Νεαιτῖνοι; StV 3, No. 479). As part of the Roman province, N. was one of the favoured municipalities ( civitates foederatae) and expressly exempted from providing grain shipments ( cu…

Pyrgi

(667 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Πύργοι/ Pýrgoi). [German version] [1] Port of Caere This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Phoenicians, Poeni (Πύργοι/ Pýrgoi). Probably the most frequented port of ancient Caere, near modern Santa Severa. Literary evidence points to a sanctuary to Eileithyia (Str. 5,2,8) or Leucothea (Ps.-Aristot. Lin. insec. 2,1349b;  Ael. VH 1,20;  Polyaenus, Strat. 5,2,21) there, possibly identical to the remains excavated mid 20th cent. near a bay on the Tyrrhenian coast: a témenos (holy district) with two archaic temples (single cel…

Polichne

(171 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Πολίχνη; Políchnē). [German version] [1] Settlement in the Olympieum in the SW of Syracusae Settlement in the Olympieum, a sanctuary of Zeus on the right bank of the Anapus in the south west of Syracusae, where in 414 BC Gylippus stationed part of his cavalry to hamper the Athenians on the Plemmyrium from foraging in the Syracusan hinterland (Thuc. 7,4,7; Diod. Sic. 13,7,5; cf. [1. 41, 4110]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H.-P. Drögemüller, Syrakus (Gymnasium Beiheft 6), 1969. [German version] [2] Town in NW Crete This item can be found on the following maps: Crete Town …

Prophthasia

(105 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander (Προφθασία/ Prophthasía, Str. 11,8,9; 15,2,8; Ptol. 6,19,4; 8,25,8 N.; Isidorus of Charax, Stathmoí Parthikoí 16 = GGM 1,253: Φρά/ Phrá in Ἀναύων χώρα/ Anaúōn chṓra that is otherwise unknown; Plin. HN 6,61: P.). Possibly the city of Φράδα/ Phráda (Charax of Pergamum FGrH 103 F 20) renamed in this way by Alexander [4] the Great probably in 330 BC in the region of Drangiana, generally identified with modern Farāh in Afghanistan. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. …

Zakoria

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Station on the Pontic coast road (Arr. Per. p. E. 21: Ζάγωρα/ Zágōra; Tab. Peut. 10,1; Geogr. Rav. 2,17: Agoria; 5,10: Z.; Guido, Geographica 101) from Sinope to Trapezus between Gurzubathon (modern Kurzuvet) and Zaliches (at modern Alaçam), presumably at modern Çayağzı at the mouth of the Aksu. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Caecinus

(67 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καικῖνος; Kaikînos). According to Paus. 6,6,4, the C. is the border river between  Locri and Rhegium, where the Athenians under  Laches [1] defeated the Locrians under Proxenus (Thuc. 3,103,3) in what is today Amendolea/Sicily. The Locrian fist fighter Euthymus was worshipped at a hero-shrine and regarded as the son of the river god C. (Ael. VH 8,18). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 955.

Laevi

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian (Liv. 5,25,2; Plin. HN 3,124) or Celtic (Cato in Plin. l.c.; Λάοι, Pol. 2,17,4) tribe which founded the city of Ticinum (modern Pavia), together with the Matrici; Ticinum later fell under the rule of the Insubres (Ptol. 3,1,33). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 179.

Tegianum

(74 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (modern Teggiano). City in Lucania (Lucani) on the left bank of the Tanager (modern Tanagro) on the via Popilia from Consentia to Aquilonia [1] (Plin. HN 3,98: Tergilani = Tegianenses?; Liber Coloniarum 209). Municipium , which under Nero [1] was elevated to a colonia, tribus Pomptina. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography V. Bracco, Nuove scoperte archeologiche in Lucania, in: RAL 20, 1965, 283 f.

Cotyora

(103 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Xenophon | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius (Κοτύωρα; Kotýōra). Port town on the south coast of  Pontus Euxinus, assumed to be near Ordu, where remains of an ancient harbour pier are located. The ‘Ten Thousand’ of  Xenophon rested there for 45 days before they took to the sea in the west. Under Pharnaces I (185-160/154 BC), C. was united in a synoikismós with Cerasus in Pharnacaea and declined to a small town (πολίχνη, Str. 12,3,17) (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 24; Peripl. m. Eux. 34). Olshausen, Eckart (S…

Ximene

(78 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξιμήνη; Ximḗnē). Region in the territory of Amasea, which in the south of Diacopene and Pimolisene "reaches as far as the river Halys... In X. there are salt mines, from which the Halys, it is surmised, took its name" (Str. 12,3,39). According to the sequence of mentions in  Str. loc.cit. the X. is to be looked for in the area between Çorum and the River Kızılırmak. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Olshausen/Biller/Wagner, 174 (with map A 3).

Istros

(32 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴστρος; Ístros). Island documented by Steph. Byz. s.v. I. with homonymous city at the promontory of Triopium (modern Deveboynu Burnu or Kıriyo Burnu) near Cnidus. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Clepsydra

(156 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Κλεψύδρα; Klepsýdra). [German version] [1] Spring near Messene Spring from which the well named after Arsinoe, the mother of Asclepius, in the agora in Messene was fed (Paus. 4,31,6; 33,1), possibly corresponds to the village spring in Mavromati or a spring below Ithome peak ( Ithome [1]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Messene, RE Suppl. 15, 142ff. D. Musti, M. Torelli, Pausania. Guida della Grecia 4, 1991, 252ff. [German version] [2] Spring of the Acropolis of Athens Since the Neolithic period the most important spring of the Acropolis of …

Temnus

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τῆμνος/ Têmnos, Aeolic Τᾶμνος/ Tâmnos). Aeolian city to the southeast of Dumanlı Hill on the right bank of the Hermus [2], where in Antiquity the river flowed into the Aegean (Plin. HN 5,119); its ruins (fortress of Nemrut) are at modern Görece. Although not a member of the Delian League, in the 5th and 4th cents. BC T. was able to preserve its independence of the Persian Great King (Xen. Hell. 4,8,15). Apparently, by the end of the 3rd cent. BC T. was under the rule of the Attalids (Attalus; cf. the isopoliteía treaty between T. and Pergamum StV 2, 5…

River

(230 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Terrestrial relief and climate determine the size and direction of river courses; and for their part, the major river valleys of the inhabited world determined the trade and commerce of those societies through whose regions they passed, offering them both infrastructural and economic advantages. They seldom represented insurmountable obstacles to traffic. Rather, in varying degree they directed traffic flow over particular routes (fords, bridges). The economic usefulness of river …

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …

Gerunium

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Apulia, 200 stadia (= 24 miles) from  Luceria (Pol. 3,100,3) on a side-road reaching the coastal road between Larinum and Teanum Apulum (Tab. Peut. 6,3), can probably be located near Castel Dragona to the south of Fortore. In 217-216 BC, it served as Hannibal's winter quarters (Pol. 3,100ff.; Liv. 22,18ff.; App. Hann. 15f). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 785.

Salluvii

(303 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian Celtic tribe (Liv. 5,35,2; Liv. Per. 60 f.; 73: S.; Str.  4,1,3; 4,1,5 f.; 4,1,9; 4,1,11 f.; 4,6,3 f.: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Plin. HN 3,36: S.; 3,47; 124: Sallui; Flor. Epit. 1,19,5: S.; App. Celt. 12,1; Avien. 701: Salyes; Ptol. 2,10,15: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Obseq. 90; 92: Sallyes; Amm. Marc. 15,11,15: S.) in the hinterland of Massalia between the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) and the Alpes Maritimae. Their central oppidum has been excavated near Entremont; there was probably a local cult connected with the têtes coupées ( cf. the cephalophoric stones in the Museum of A…
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