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Petrocorii

(218 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πετροκόριοι; Petrokórioi). Tribe of Gallia Celtica (later Aquitania), on both banks of the Duranus (Dordogne) in what is now the Périgord (Str. 4,2,2 mentions the Petrokórioi among the 14 tribes of Aquitania between Garumna and Liger; Ptol. 2,7,9: Πετροκόριοι καὶ πόλις Οὐέσσουνα/ Petrokórioi kaì pólis Ouéssouna). Their neighbours to the north west were the Santoni, to the west the Bituriges Vivisci, to the south the Nitiobriges, to the south east the Cadurci and to the north east the Lemovices (Plin. HN 4,109; Not. Galliaru…

Barbosthenes

(63 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Βαρβοσθένης; Barbosthénēs). Mountain, 14.8 km from Sparta, where  Nabis was defeated by Philopoemen in 192 BC (Liv. 35,27,13; 30,9 incorrect Barnosthenem), perhaps an eastward continuation of the  Olympus in the  Parnon near Vresthena or Varvitsa. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 2, 1868, 117 n. 1 A. Forbiger, Hdb. [in titles] der Alten Geogr. 3, 1877, 679 n. 77.

Antinum

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town of the  Marsi (CIL IX 3839; 3845) on the upper reaches of the  Liris, modern Cività d'Antino. In the Roman imperial age, it was a municipium of the tribus Sergia. Remains of the town walls (polygonal stonework). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Keras

(31 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Golden Horn' (Κέρας; Kéras). Synonymous with Chrysokeras/‘Golden Horn’ (cf. Amm. Marc. 22,8,7). Byzantium Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] see Gefäße, Gefäßformen/-typen (Drinking horn) see Rhyton

Pellene

(428 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Πελλήνη/ Pellḗnē, Πελλάνα/ Pellána, ethnic name Πελληνεύς/ Pellēneús, Πελλανεύς/ Pellaneús). Town in the easternmost part of Achaea (Achaeans, with map), to the west of Sicyon (Paus. 7,26,12-27,12). From the Mycenaean Period (place name pre-Greek., Hom. Il. 2,574) onwards and into the 7th/6th cents. BC, P. was possibly located on the site of the kṓmē of the same name mentioned in Str. 8,7,5 . The town found itself in lengthy quarrels with Sicyon (POxy. 11,1365; 1…

Hermonassa

(192 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἑρμώνασσα; Hermṓnassa). [German version] [1] Greek port on the Asiatic bank of the Cimmerian Bosporus This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Patricius Greek port on the Asiatic bank of the Cimmerian  Bosporus [2], on the southern coast of the Bay of Taman, founded as a colony of Ionians and Aeolians before the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Imports and coins attest to lively trade. H. was situated in the tribal area of the Sindi (Str. 11,2,10) whose upper class also lived in H. (rich kurgans). Main cul…

Apeliotes

(145 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀπηλιώτης sc. ἄνεμος; Apēliṓtēs sc. ánemos). Apeliotes denotes the ‘wind that blows from the sunrise’ (east; warm and misty: Aristot. Mete. 364 a 21; b 28), the wind god responsible for this wind (allegory of Apeliotes with autumnal fruits held in his garments on the extant horologium of Andronicus in Athens: cf. Varro, Rust. 3,5,17), and in general the easterly point of the compass. The Ionian form of the name (cf. Hdt.4,22; 7,188) was retained in the Attic (cf. Thuc. 3,23,5; Eur. Cy…

Polytimetus

(56 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πολυτίμητος/ Polytímētos). River in Sogdiana; modern Zeravshan in Uzbekistan, rising in the Alay and either petering  out c. 640 km in the Kyzylkum (desert) or flowing into the Oxus (Araxes [2]) (Aristob. FGrH 139 F 28a; Arr. Anab. 4,5,6; 4,6,7; Ptol. 6,14,2; Curt. 7,10,1-3). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Polytimetos, RE 21,2, 1836-1838.

Caesarodunum

(239 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (Καισαρόδουνον; Kaisaródounon). Capital of the Celtic  Turoni (Ptol. 2,8,14; Tab. Peut. 2,3; Notitia Galliarum 3); probably since Augustus the civitas Turonorum on a bluff on the left bank of the  Liger (the modern Loire), about 16 km above its confluence with the Cares (the modern Cher); the modern Tours (Dép. Indre-et-Loire). The Celtic settlement was directly opposite on the right bank of the river; in the 1st cent. AD it was transferred to the plain between th…

Callimachus

(3,899 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lehnus, Luigi (Milan) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Καλλίμαχος; Kallímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 490 BC archon and supreme commander at Marathon Athenian, árchōn polémarchos ( Archontes) in 490 BC, supreme commander at  Marathon (490 BC). It is disputed if C. was appointed polémarchos by lot (Hdt. 6,109). Aristotle's claim (Ath. Pol. 22,5) that the archontes were first selected by lot in 487/86 appears preferable. But perhaps areas of responsibility were already distributed among them by lot after 509/8. C. only nominally held supreme command, but he was a voting mem…

Syn(n)ada

(97 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σύν(ν)αδα/ Sýn(n)ada; Lat. Synnas). City in Greater Phrygia (Diod. 20,107,3 f.; Cic. Fam. 3,8,3; 5 f.; 15,4,2; Cic. Att. 5,16,2; 5,20,1; Liv. 38,15,14; 45,34,11 f.; Synnas: Plin. HN 5,105,8; Tab. Peut. 9,4; Suda s. v. Συνᾴδων: Sýnada), modern Şuhut. At the village of Docimeum (Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.: Dokímeia kṓmē) in S.'s territory there were quarries in which an alabaster-like marble (with map) was obtained, named by the local inhabitants after Docimeum, and by the Romans after S. (Str. 12,8,13 f.: Synnadikòs líthos). Roman necropoleis, rock graves, and r…

Erymanthus

(168 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ἐρύμανθος; Erýmanthos). [German version] [1] Mountain ridge in the north west Pelopponese A mountain range extending up to 2,224 m in height and consisting of several chains stretching north-east to south-west; located in the north-western Peloponnese in the border area between  Elis and  Achaea, the earlier north-western mountain border of  Arcadia. Composed of layers of limestone, it drops away sharply for over 25 km in the north-west towards the flysch hills of Voundoukia; today also Olonos. The setting…

Pedasa

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Persian Wars | Delian League (τὰ Πήδασα/ tà Pḗdasa, Πήδασος/ Pḗdasos). City of the Leleges in Caria in the mountainous country to the north of Halicarnassus (Str. 13,1,59; 7,7,2) near Gökçeler, to the east of the modern village of Bitez, which has preserved the name P. In individual cases accounts of P. give rise to doubt as to whether P., Pidasa or Pedason is meant (cf. [1. vol. 1, 535-538]). In 545/4 BC in the Lide mountains near P. (modern…

Plataniston

(46 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πλατανιστών; Platanistṓn). River in southern Arcadia (Paus. 8,39,1), rising on Mount Tetrazio (1389 m high), flowing north through  Lycosura and east of Calivia Carion into the left side of the Alpheius [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. P. (2), RE 20, 2335.

Tarusco

(74 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in Gallia Narbonensis City in Gallia Narbonensis in the territory of the Salluvii (Str. 4,1,3; 12: Ταρούσκων; Ptol. 2,10,15), modern Tarascon. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, Gallia Narbonensis, 1988, 300. [German version] [2] City in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages City in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages on the northern slopes of the Pyrenees (Pyrene [2]; Plin. HN 3,37), modern Tarascon sur Ariège. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Thermodon

(132 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] River in Boeotia (Θερμώδων; Thermṓdōn). River (Hdt. 9,43,2: potamós; Paus. 9,19,3: cheímarros, ‘torrent’) of uncertain location in Boeotia, between Tanagra and Glisas, probably closer to Glisas. Possibly the modern Kalamítis, which flows on the south side of the Hypatus mountains (modern Sagmatás) and passes Glisas to the south [1. 222f.]. Identification with the Haemon [6] (Plut. Theseus 27,6; Plut. Demosthenes 19) is incorrect. Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey. [German version] [2] River in Asia minor Coastal river (modern Terme); r…

Pons

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Roads and bridges, construction of see Roads and bridges, construction of Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Voting bridge The term pons (generally in the plural form of pontes) was also used for the narrow 'voting bridges' in Rome which members of the comitia had to cross on the way to cast their votes. It is argued that the saying Sexagenarios de ponte (deicere) with its incitement to throw sixty-year olds from the bridge (Cic. Rosc. Am. 100; Fest. 452; Macrob. Sat. 1,5,10) stemmed from the demand by younger voters to bar older o…

Symaethum

(122 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σύμαιθος/ Sýmaithos, Latin Symaethum). Border river between Leontini and Catane (Thuc. 6,65,2) in the east of Sicily. It rises according to Str. 6,2,2 like the Pantacyas at Mount Etna (Aetna [1]) and flows into the sea to the north of Catane (Ptol. 3,4,9; cf. Plin. HN 3,89). The modern Simeto, however, which can without doubt be identified with the S., rises on Mount Nebrodes and its mouth is to the south of Catane; the displacement of the mouth can be explained by the activities of…

Sicily

(3,857 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Kunz, Heike (Tübingen)
(Σικελία/ Sikelía, Sicily). The largest island in the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum; cf. Str. 2,5,19; differently Hdt. 1,170 and Timaeus FGrH 566 F 65): 25,460 km2, including the offshore islands such as the Insulae Aegates, Ustica, the Aeoli Insulae, Cossura, Lopadusa (present-day Lampedusa), Aethusa (present-day Linosa) and Melite [7] 25,953 km2. [German version] I. Name The island was originally called Trinacria (Τρινακρία/ Trinakría, Hellanicus FGrH 51 F 79b), later Sicania (Σικανίη/ Sikaníē, Hdt. 7,170; Σικανία/ Sikanía, Thuc. 6,2,2) and only then Sicelia (Σικελία)…

Hodometron

(106 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ὁδόμετρον; hodómetron). Hero (Dioptra 34) and Vitruvius (10,9) describe a mechanical device for distance measurement on land in which a connection of endless screws and sprockets mounted on different levels, driven by a cart wheel, transmits each rotation of the wheel to a display system in a retarding manner (Hero: pointer; Vitruvius: falling balls). The hodometron was sufficient for one day trip and then had to be put back to the initial position. Vitruvius knew of a corresponding device for sea trips based on a bucket wheel. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliograp…
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