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Carthage

(1,920 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M. | Niemeyer, H.G.
I. Qart-ḥadašt/Carchedon (8th–2nd cents. BC; map A) According to the report by Timaeus (FGrH 566 F 60; another detailed account in Iustinus, Elissa), Carchedon (Phoenician: Qart-ḥadašt/‘New Town’, Latin: Carthago, commonly Carthage) was founded in 814/13 or 813/12 BC by colonists from Tyre, whose leader was Princess Elissa/Dido. Situated on a peninsula on the African coast of the Mediterranean Sea, it was a perfect site for building port facilities and fortifications. On its northern flank, it was bounded by the Gulf…

The Phoenician and West Phoenician/Carthaginian world in the western Mediterranean area (9th–2nd cents. BC)

(1,477 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M. | Niemeyer, H.G. | Sommer, M.
Not only does the map cover a lengthy period (9th-2nd cents. BC), but it also brings together two separate phases of Phoenician presence in the western Mediterranean. Firstly, there is the period of early Phoenician settlements, trading posts and agrarian communities initiated and controlled by the Levantine mother-cities, notably Tyre (9th-7th/6th cents.). Secondly, what is conventionally referred to as Punic or Carthaginian foundations, are all the Western Phoenician settlements on the African…