[German Version] The Qurʾān (Arab.
qurʾān, “recitation”) is a collection of messages proclaimed as divine revelations by the Prophet Muḥammad between 620 and 632, initially to his neighbors in Mecca and after 622 to a growing following in Medina. In its final redaction, which goes back to the caliphate of ʿUṯmān (644–655), it is broken down into 114 suras (
sūra, “lection”) arranged by decreasing length. The verses (
āyāt, “signs”) are marked by end rhyme. Three stages of development can be identified. The first was “recitation” (
qurʾān, from Aram.
qeryānā, “reading,” “lectionary”) of brief parenetic texts in poetic form, calling for monotheistic worship of the one and only God (X), the Creator, and an eschatologically focused life (Eschatology: IX). Internal references to the spatiotemporal setting of these short, easily memorized texts indicate that they were recited in the context of Meccan rituals observed at fixed hours of the day near the Kaʿba. The earliest suras (72–114), in Old Arabic rhymed prose (