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Hectoridas

(113 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor, listed in the accounts for the sculptures of a gable of the temple of Asclepius at  Epidaurus, which was finished around 370 BC. Therefore, the fragments of an original Iliupersis are to be ascribed to him and must be considered as an independent work and not - as often presumed - as copies in the fashion of models of  Timotheus. In addition, H. provided models for the painting of lionhead gargoyles. His signature is also to be found on the base of a lost statue in Epidaurus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A. Burford, The Greek temple builders at Epidau…

Clipeus

(258 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] [1] Bust on a round shield ( clipeata imago). The bust on a round shield, in antiquity usually designated as clipeus et imago or εἰκὼν ἐν ὅπλῳ, is to be distinguished from relief medallions in the art of miniatures. Clipei painted on terracotta come from tombs (Centuripe); the earliest marble clipei attached to buildings come from Delos (Mithridates monument, c. 100 BC). The clipeus became widespread from the 1st cent. BC in Rome. Written sources on their invention suggest an origin in ancestor worship and military honours, though reports on Punic clipei of Hasdrubal ar…

Praxias

(141 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πραξίας/ Praxías). Son of Lysimachus, sculptor from Athens, pupil of Calamis. His pediment groups on the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, which are described by Pausanias (10,19,4), survive. They were completed by Androsthenes from 335-327 BC, after P.'s death. Signatures of P. from the period 368-338 BC survive from Oropus and Athens; others in Delos and Thasos are from his son of the same name. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 857, 860  Lippold, 193, 243  J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, vol. 2, 1957, 109-113  EAA 6, s. v. P. …

Gitiades

(186 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Sparta, where he created the temple and cult image of Athena Polioúchos kaì Chalkíoikos as well as extensive mythological scenes in bronze reliefs (Paus. 3,17,2). The latter were presumably displayed on the walls of the temple, and according to later coin reproductions, the gown of the Athena statue was also provided with reliefs. G. had also written a hymn to Athena. Also on view in Amyclae were two bronze tripods by him with Aphrodite and Artemis as supporting figures that …

Hypatodorus

(211 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ὑπατόδωρος; Hypatódōros). Bronze sculptor from Thebes, worked in the middle of the 5th cent. BC. In Delphi, H., together with Aristogiton, created the ‘Seven Against Thebes’, as well as, according to an extant signature, the votive for a Boeotian. The former was erected by the Argives as a victory votive after the battle of Oenoe (around 460 BC) (Paus. 10,10,3-4). Its base was identified at the beginning of the Sacred Way. H.'s bronze statue of Athena in Aliphera in Arcadia, the b…

Periclytus

(113 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Περίκλυτος; Períklytos). Sculptor, pupil of  Polyclitus [2]. P. is named as the teacher of an Antiphanes active in Delphi in 359 BC. Pausanias (2,22,7) mentions a brother of Naucydes, but the name is given variously in MSS as P. or Polyclitus. Hence P. plays a part in the reconstruction of the family tree of Polyclitus [2] and [3], whereas of his work nothing is known. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 985, 995  D. Arnold, Die Polykletnachfolge, 1969, 6; 12-14  A. Linfert, Die Schule des Polyklet, in: H. Beck (ed.), Polyklet. Der Bildhauer der gri…

Athanadorus

(210 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Son of Agesander; sculptor from Rhodes. Worked with  Agesander and  Polydorus; his marble copies of Hellenistic bronze groups were celebrated even in antiquity. The workshop's creative period was at first set in the mid 1st cent. BC, on the basis of Rhodian inscriptions, but after the discovery of the extensive sculpture complex of Sperlonga, most probably going back to the time of Tiberius, it can be fixed in the early Imperial period. The Scylla group is signed. Also by him are …

Kolossos

(310 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (κολοσσός, kolossós; lat. colossus). Statues of remarkable size were called kollossoi, originally in Greek literature with regard to their function as immovable representatives. Since the kolossos of Rhodes (293 BC), kolossos became a technical term for statues with a measurement of 100 feet (29 m) to as little as 10 feet. Modern scholars consider a kolossos to be at least twice life-sized. Marble kolossoi first appear in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC ( kouroi in Samos, Delos, Naxos), influenced by large Egyptian sculpture. In the 5th cent. BC, kolossoi were produced…

Pyrilampus

(92 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πυρίλαμπος; Pyrílampos). Bronze sculptor, son of Agias from Messene. A preserved Exedra base with signature of P. was dated in the 2nd or 1st century BC. It is uncertain whether this refers to the same P. of whom Pausanias (6,3,13; 6,15,1; 6,16,5) saw three victory statues in Olympia. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 1565-1567  Loewy, no. 274  Lippold, 380  EAA 6, s. v. Pyrilampus, 1965, 572-573  G. Maddoli, Pyrilampes, dimenticato scultore di Sicione, e la cronologia di Pyrilampes di Messene, in: Dialoghi di archeologia 7, 2, 1989, 65-69.

Athenis

(41 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Chios, son of  Archermus. He worked in the late 6th cent. BC on Delos, in Iasos, Chios and in Athens with his brother  Bupalus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 335-337 Overbeck, no. 314, 315, 318 (sources).

Theocosmus

(90 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Θεόκοσμος; Theókosmos). Sculptor from Megara in the late 5th cent. BC, father of Callicles [2]. With the help of Pheidias he created a gold-ivory cult image of Zeus (Gold-ivory technique) in Megara, which remained unfinished after 431 BC because of the Peloponnesian War. On the victory monument of Lysander [1] in Delphi (in 405 BC) T. made the statue of Hermon [3]. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 855; 979; 1035  Lippold, 203 f.  P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 816  A. Jacquemin, Offrandes monumentales à Delphes, 1999, Nr. 322.

Bryaxis

(339 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Bρύαξις; Brýaxis) Sculptor of Carian descent. The traditional list of his works implies such a long period of creative activity, that even in antiquity, his works were divided between two homonymous artists. A signed relief base in Athens (NM) is dated to c. 350 BC. Also assigned to the same period is the collaboration of B. on the Mausoleum of  Halicarnassus (351 BC: death of Mausolus); however, there are also valid arguments for dating this after 333 BC. The allocation of sculpture fragments -- none of which were found in situ (today London, BM) -- to the north side…

Butades

(51 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Legendary sculptor of kouroi from Sicyon who in ancient sources is credited with the invention of figurative antefixes (7th cent. BC) and of portraiture. Until 146 BC, one of his works, probably a mask, was displayed in Corinth. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 196. 211 Overbeck, no. 259. 260 (sources).

Laocoon group

(858 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] A group of marble statues, found in 1506 in the area of the Baths of Trajan in Rome, highly regarded, widely received and academically controversial since its discovery (Rom, VM). It shows Laocoon and his two sons, entangled in sea snakes and nearing death. Its identity with a marble group praised by Pliny (HN 36,37: omnibus et picturae et statuariae artis praeferendum) of the artists Agesander, Athanodorus and Polydorus from Rhodes in the house of Titus, was recognized immediately. The first phase of reception stands under the influence o…

Branchidae

(81 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Term used, since their discovery in 1765, for statues from the oracle sanctuary of Apollo Branchos in  Didyma. The 15 extant statues of seated males date from 590-540 BC, record the names of their sculptors and were placed on the sacred road linking  Miletus to the sanctuary. They are significant examples of Ionian sculpture style and of the oriental influence on Greek iconography. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 374-375 K. Tuchelt, Die archa. Skulpturen von Didyma, IstForsch 27, 1970.

Agesander

(34 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγήσανδρος; Agésandros) (Hagesandrus), son of Paeonius, sculptor from Rhodes. Together with  Athanadorus and Polydorus, he produced famous groups of Hellenistic sculptures in Rome. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography B. Andreae, Praetorium Speluncae, 1994.

Grylloi

(214 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] According to Pliny (HN 35,114), the name for caricature depictions in painting since Antiphilus [4] of Alexandria represented a certain Gryllus in that way. Originally these were dancers with grotesque physical proportions and contortions. As gryllographeîn and grylloeídēs later generally referred to ridiculously proportioned bodies, small-format free-standing sculpture representations can also be described as grylloi. Today the genre is no longer attributed to Alexandrian art only. To cover all animal caricatures and monstrous figur…

Heraclidas

(115 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Atrax in Thessaly, active in the 4th cent. BC. Together with Hippocrates he signed a victory votive of the Pharsalians in Delphi, where it was set up in the mid 4th cent. BC. Because of the measures at the base, it may have been the bronze group of Achilles on horseback and Patroclus, which Pausanias (10,13,5) describes. However, because the base bears a rededication to Claudius there can be no certainty. Pausanias may not have seen the original work. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography G. Daux, Pausanias à Delphes, 1936, 141-143 J. Marcadé, Recueil de…

Calamis

(634 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Greek sculptor; ancient sources praise his horses and female figures, refer to him as the sculptor who made the transition to the classical period. He endowed his works with both ‘hardness’ and ‘grace’. He is linked with  Onatas,  Praxiteles and  Scopas. Many researchers have tried to solve the chronological contradictions by assuming that there were numerous sculptors of the same name with various surviving works ascribed to them. Since no work can be sufficiently proven to originate from C., the extent of his work is not known. From the famous C. originated a stat…

Pasticcio

(587 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Italian for 'pie, hotchpotch'). The figurative meaning, which arose in the 17th cent., referred to works in which elements of style or motifs of different artists were imitated, as charming features or for purposes of deception. In figurative art, pasticcio first referred to the combination of ancient friezes with plaster-work on Roman palazzi of the 17th and 18th cents. Pasticcio thereafter described esp. modern combinations of various ancient fragments with new works. In archaeology, the term was used mostly pejoratively for eclectic wo…
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