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Temporal Clause: Rabbinic Hebrew

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Morgenstern, Matthew
Rabbinic Hebrew employs a wide range of prepositions and conjunctions to express temporal relations between different events (a detailed study of temporal clauses in the Mishna may be found in Azar 1995:113–123). Since much of the rabbinic corpus deals with hypothetical legal situations, temporal clauses often indicate relative rather than absolute time. Furthermore, the close interconnection between temporal and causal expressions often makes it difficult to distinguish between temporal and result clauses (Result Clause: Rabb…

Result Clause: Rabbinic Hebrew

(795 words)

Author(s): Morgenstern, Matthew
A result clause describes the outcome of a previously described situation. According to some scholars, result clauses are most appropriately classified under the category of consecutive clauses. They also resemble final clauses, that is, clauses expressing purpose, In Rabbinic Hebrew the distinction between final and result clauses is not always clear: the degree to which a result is the outcome of direct intention or circumstantial causes is often a matter of contention. However, in certain cases, it is apparent that the intention is undesired or unavoidable, e.g., דחף אחד מהן את…

Second Temple Period

(5,639 words)

Author(s): Morgenstern, Matthew
1. Preliminary Remarks Most of the linguistic evidence for the Hebrew of the Second Temple Period is derived from the later books of the Bible and from the Dead Sea Scrolls. The less formal manuscripts from the Dead Sea Scrolls provide valuable evidence for the phonetic features that are not attested in the Biblical corpus, while many syntactic developments are shared by both corpora (Dead Sea Scrolls: Linguistic Features). 2. Methodology and Sources The epigraphic material that survives from the First Temple Period is limited, and with the exception of the extremely…

Pronouns, Personal Independent

(1,843 words)

Author(s): Morgenstern, Matthew
As in the other classical Semitic languages, and apparently in Proto-Semitic, the earliest forms of Hebrew show gender distinctions in the personal pronouns for 2nd and 3rd person in both singular and plural, but not for 1st person in either singular or plural. There are no specifically dual pronouns in Hebrew (Blau 1988). Detailed discussions of the pronouns in their Semitic contexts can be found in Brockelmann (1908:297–306) and Barth (1913:22). Evidence for Biblical Hebrew is presented in Joü…