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Letter of Rib-Haddi of Byblos (Gubla) (EA 362) (3.92E)

(736 words)

Author(s): Moran, William
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Letters; Tell El-Amarna Commentary The most diligent — and most wearisome — of the Pharaoh’s vassal correspondents, Rib-Hadda (here Rib-Haddi) continues his litany of requests for action against the rising state of Amurru to the north, earlier under Abdi-Aširta, now under his sons, especially Aziru. The Pharaoh is Amenophis IV (Akhenaten). Letter of Rib-Haddi of Byblos (Gubla) ( EA 362) (3.92E) Subject: Gen 43:28; 1 Sam 24:9; Isa 60:14; Ezek 27:9; Exod 5:3; 9:15; Lev 26:25; Num 14:12; Deut 28:21; 2 Sam…

Letter of Tušratta, King of Mitanni (EA 17) (3.92D)

(762 words)

Author(s): Moran, William
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Letters; Tell El-Amarna Commentary In one of the earliest letters of the Amarna archive, the king of Mitanni tries to patch up relations with Egypt and renew an earlier alliance. Letter of Tušratta, King of Mitanni ( EA 17) (3.92D) Subject: Deut 6:5; Judg 5:31; 1 Sam 18:1, 3; 20:17; 2 Sam 19:7; 1 Kgs 5:15; Deut 1:27; Josh 6:2; 7:7, 24; 1 Kgs 22:6; 2 Kgs 18:30; 19:10; Exod 14:28; Deut 2:15; Josh 7:24 ( lines 1–10) Say to Nibmuareya,1 the king of Egypt, my brother: Thus Tušeratta,2 the king of Mitanni,3 your bro…

Letter of Labʾayu of Shechem (Šakmu) (EA 254) (3.92G)

(479 words)

Author(s): Moran, William
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Letters; Tell El-Amarna Commentary Labʾayu again protests his utter loyalty, further elaborating the rhetoric of  EA 253 (COSB.3.92F). Letter of Labʾayu of Shechem (Šakmu) ( EA 254) (3.92G) Subject: Gen 43:28; 1 Sam 24:9; Isa 60:14; Josh 10:33; 12:12; 16:3, 10; 21:21; Judg 1:29; 2 Sam 5:25; 1 Kgs 15–17; 1 Chr 6:52; 7:28; 14:16; 20:4; 1 Sam 8:11–17 ( lines 1–5) To the king, my lord and my Sun. Thus Labʾayu, your servant and the dirt on which you tread. I fall at the feet of the king, m…

Letter of Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem (Urusalim) (EA 289) (3.92B)

(806 words)

Author(s): Moran, William
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Letters; Tell El-Amarna Commentary This letter pursues the charges in  EA 286 against Milk-ilu1 of Gezer (Gazru) and names his fellow-traitors. The lack of a garrison, also mentioned in the earlier letter, is further stressed. Letter of Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem (Urusalim) ( EA 289) (3.92B) Subject: Gen 43:28; 1 Sam 24:9; Isa 60:14; Judg 1:27; Gen 12:6; Num 14:4; Jer 48:45; Ps 91:1; Isa 30:2–3; Lam 4:20; 1 Sam 23:1–13; Gen 42:15–16; 15:21 ( lines 1–4) Say to the king, my lord: Message of Abdi-Heba, yo…

Letter of Labʾayu of Shechem (Šakmu) (EA 253) (3.92F)

(444 words)

Author(s): Moran, William
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Letters; Tell El-Amarna Commentary The Amarna archive preserved three letters from Labʾayu ( EA 252–254). In the first, he agrees, very reluctantly, to obey orders of the king he finds very distasteful; in the others, both apparently in reply to a letter from the Pharaoh questioning his loyalty, especially in his dealings with Gezer (Gazru),1 he sets the record straight. Letter of Labʾayu of Shechem (Šakmu) ( EA 253) (3.92F) Subject: Gen 43:28; 1 Sam 24:9; Isa 60:14; Josh 10:33; 12:12; 16:3, 10; 21:21; J…

Letter of Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem (EA 286) (3.92A)

(1,051 words)

Author(s): Moran, William
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Letters; Tell El-Amarna Commentary This letter is one of six ( EA 285–290) in the Amarna archive from Abdi-Heba,1 ruler of Jerusalem, to the Pharaoh, probably Amenophis IV (ca. 1350–1334 bce).2 Letter of Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem ( EA 286) (3.92A) Subject: Gen 43:28; 1 Sam 24:9; Isa 60:14; Jer 2:5; Mic 6:3; Deut 4:34; 5:15; 21:5; Gen 42:15–16; 15:21; Deut 6:5; Judg 5:31; 1 Sam 18:1, 3; 20:17; 2 Sam 19:7; 1 Kgs 5:15 ( lines 1–4) Say to the king, my lord: Message of Abdi-Heba, your servant. I fall at …

Letter of the Ruler of Gezer (Gazru) (EA 292) (3.92C)

(643 words)

Author(s): Moran, William
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Letters; Tell El-Amarna Commentary This letter and  EA 293 were sent by the ruler of Gazru, whose name is written logographically and remains of uncertain interpretation. The scribe who wrote these two letters also wrote  EA 294, and probably for the same ruler. Letter of the Ruler of Gezer (Gazru) ( EA 292) (3.92C) Subject: Exod 24:17; 34:27–35; Num 6:25; Ezra 48:3; 1 Chr 8:6; Josh 10:33; 12:12; 16:3, 10; 21:21; Judg 1:29; 2 Sam 5:25; 1 Kgs 15–17; 1 Chr 6:52; 7:28; 14:16; 20:4 ( lines 1–7) Say to the king, my …