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Civil War of 1945-49

(887 words)

Author(s): Merker, Peter
After the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-45, the Guomindang (GMD) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) faced each other again directly as unappeasable enemies in the struggle for power. At the end of the war and during the following Soviet occupation of many regions in Manchuria , which caught the GMD by far greater surprise than its domestic enemies, the CCP leadership relied on the far-reaching sphere of influence that it had already established behind the front lines in many areas by the time of the Japanese capitulation. Owing to its inter…

Nanjing Nationalist Government

(3,700 words)

Author(s): Merker, Peter
1. Establishment From its power base in Guangzhou, where in July 1925 the headquarters of the United Front between the Guomindang (GMD) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) had been transformed into the Chinese National Government ( Zhonghua minguo guomin zhengfu), the National Revolutionary Army under the general command of Chiang Kaishek launched its Northern Expedition in order to unify the country. In the course of the militarily successful advance in central China the tensions and conflicts between the two allied parties in thei…

Republic (1912-49)

(1,778 words)

Author(s): Merker, Peter
After its demise on the Chinese mainland, the Chinese Republic is referred to as a distinct historical period. It was not a unified, thoroughly organized state structure anchored in time and space, but rather the political and state legislative framework for Chinese governments which emerged in a variety of forms and worked with different degrees of efficiency. In scholarship this period is often regarded as a period of transition during which China's transformation in the direction of a modern …