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Hypomeiones

(99 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa
[English version] (οἱ ὑπομείονες, wörtlich: die “Geringeren”). Im Kontext der Verschwörung des Kinadon 398 v. Chr. werden h. neben Heloten, neodamṓdeis und períoikoi als Gruppe minderberechtigter Spartaner genannt (Xen. hell. 3,3,6). Der Begriff stellte wohl keinen t.t. dar, sondern diente eher als Sammelbezeichnung für ehemalige Spartiátai , die aus unterschiedlichen Gründen und in verschiedener Weise als minderberechtigt gegenüber den hómoioi galten: Feigheit im Kampf (vgl. trésantes ) führte bei h. zu sozialer Stigmatisierung, Vermögensverlust oder Versagen in der agō…

Nauarchos

(168 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa
[English version] (ναύαρχος). Bezeichnung für einen spartan. Flottenbefehlshaber, erstmals 480 v. Chr. in den Perserkriegen belegt, als Sparta auch zu Wasser das griech. Heer kommandierte, wodurch die Einrichtung mil. Ämter erforderlich wurde. Erster n. war Eurybiades (Hdt. 8,2; 8,42). Das Amt der nauarchía wurde dann erst wieder im Peloponnesischen Krieg bedeutsam, erscheint dort als Jahresamt, das jeder Spartiate nur einmal bekleiden konnte; letzteres konnte aber umgangen werden, indem man fähige Heerführer, wie z. B. Lysandros [1], als epistoleús (Stellvertreter) ei…

Lukios

(153 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa
[English version] [5] L. von Alexandreia Arianer, Bf. von Alexandreia 361 Arianer (Arianismus), der sich nach dem Tod des Georgios [1] (361 n. Chr.) als Bischof von Alexandreia [1] gegen Athanasios durchzusetzen versuchte, 367 aber Ägypten verlassen mußte. Erst nach dem Tod des Athanasios 373 kehrte er zurück und nutzte die Spielräume unter Kaiser Valens [2], um den Bischofssitz von Alexandreia erneut zu gewinnen. Sein nicaenischer Konkurrent Petros II. floh nach Rom. L. ging rigoros gegen Gegner des Arian…

Oper

(2,715 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa
Meier, Mischa [English version] A. Frühzeit - Allgemeine Charakteristik (RWG) Die Frage nach der Rezeption des ant. Dramas in der neuzeitlichen O. richtet sich weniger auf das Fortleben ant. Gattungen in der Mod. als auf eine lange Reihe wechselnder Vorstellungen und Projektionen, die die Geschichte der O. begleitet und ihre Entwicklung mehrfach entscheidend beeinflußt haben; eine Verbindung zum ant. Drama liegt aber weder histor. noch gattungsspezifisch vor. Als sich um 1600 einige Dichter und Musiker um…

Petronius

(234 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa
[English version] [10a] Sex. Claudius P. Probus Viermaliger Praetorianerpraefekt, cos. 371 n. Chr., einer der mächtigsten Männer unter Valentinianus [1] I. Zunächst quaestor und praetor urbanus (ICret 4,318), wurde P. 358 proconsul Africae (Cod. Theod. 11,36,13) und 364 praef. praet. Illyrici (Cod. Theod. 1,29,1); 366 praef. praet. Galliarum (Cod. Theod. 11,1,15 mit Cod. Iust. 7,38,1), 368-375 praef. praet. Illyrici, Italiae et Africae (Amm. 27,11,1). Zw. 375 und 383 offenbar ohne Amt, bekleidete er 383 letztere Praefektur erneut (Cod. Theod. 11,13,1). 3…

Hunericus, Huneric

(191 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Eldest son of  Geisericus and his successor in AD 477-484. King of the Vandals ( rex Vandalorum et Alanorum; Victor Vitensis 2,1). H. was first married to a daughter of the Visigoth king Theodoric I (Iord. Get. 184), and from 456 to Eudocia [2], the daughter of Valentinian III (Procop. Vand. 3,5,6), a marriage that was probably decided upon when H. was staying with him as a hostage, in order to ensure adherence to the treaty of 442 between the Romans and the Vandals (Procop. Vand. 3,4,13). H. sough…

Messenian Wars

(351 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Conflicts between the Spartans and the Messenians ( Messana, Messene [2]) are already attested at the end of the 8th cent. BC (Paus. 4,4,2f.). Repeated assaults by Spartan nobles against Messenians culminated ca. 700/690-680/670 (the older date, based on the list of Olympic victors for 736-716 [1. 9ff.; 2. 34] is not tenable, cf. [3; 4. 91ff.]) in the 1st Messenian War, which resulted in Spartan control over large parts of Messenia [4. 70-91]. A Messenian uprising ca. 640/30-600, …

Opera

(3,186 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] A. Early Period - General Characteristics (CT) Any attempt to trace the heritage of ancient drama in modern opera must focus less on the continuation of ancient genres in the post-medieval world than on a series of changing ideas and projections that have accompanied the history of opera and have on several occasions played a decisive role in its development; however, there are no historical or genre-specific links with ancient drama. When around 1600 a group of po…

Exarchate

(352 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] The term refers to those Byzantine territories in Italy and North Africa which after the reorganization under  Mauricius (AD 582-602) were administered by an exarch (ἔξαρχος; éxarchos, patricius et exarchus). As a direct representative of the emperor, the exarch ─ similar to the later theme structure;  Theme ─ exercised both civilian and military power and could intervene in Church politics (e.g. by confirming the election of a pope). This unusual concentration of power was the result of fighting against the …

Acrotatus

(173 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀκρότατος; Akrótatos). [German version] [1] Older son of  Cleomenes II (2nd half of 4th cent. BC) Older son of  Cleomenes II, Agiad, left Sparta in 315/14 BC without the permission of the ephors in order to conduct for the banned Syracusians and their allies the war against  Agathocles [2]. In the course of this A. is supposed to have been very savage and debauched without achieving larger military successes; he was therefore expelled and died soon thereafter in Sparta even before his father (Diod. Sic. 19,70 f.; Paus. 1,13,5; 3,6,2; Plut. Agis 3). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) …

Eurysthenes

(203 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Εὐρυσθένης; Eurysthénēs). [German version] [1] Legendary Spartan king, descendant of Heracles Legendary Spartan king, according to tradition a son of Aristodemus, descendant of Heracles. E. was held to be the progenitor of the Agiads (Hdt. 4,147; 6,52; 7,204; Cic. Div. 2,90). Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 116) makes him author of the Spartan constitution, along with his brother Procles, ancestral father of the Eurypontids; Ephorus ascribes to him the dividing-up of the Lacedaemonian settlement districts (FGrH 70 F…

Epicydias

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐπικυδίδας; Epikydídas). Spartiate, who, in 394 BC, delivered to King Agesilaus the order of the Ephoroi to return to Sparta from Asia Minor (Xen. Hell. 4,2,2; Plut. Agesilaus 15,2). He was probably a troop commander in the battle of Aigospotamoi (405) for which he was honoured in Delphi with a memorial (Paus. 10,9,10, although the name was transmitted in a corrupt form). He fell in 378 in Boeotia under Agesilaus (Xen. Hell. 5,4,39). He is probably not identical with a troop commander of the same name mentioned in Thuc. 5,12f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Abrote

(49 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀβρώτη; Abrṓtē). According to Plut. Mor. 295a, the canny wife of  Ninus, the king of Megara. In her memory, he is supposed to have introduced her official dress ἀφάβρωμα ( aphábrōma) to the Megarean women; its abolition was supposedly forbidden by an oracle. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Cerrinius

(94 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
Roman gentilicium (also Cerinius) of Oscan origin, derived from Ceres; frequently attested in Pompeii and the surrounding area [1. 467f.]. [German version] [1] Initiates in the Bacchic mysteries, 2nd cent. BC According to Liv. 39,13,9, Minnius and Herennius Cerrinii were the first men to be initiated into the Bacchic mysteries, by their mother, a priestess of Dionysus. After the Senate, seeing the cult as a conspiracy, had banned the so-called  Bacchanalia in 186 BC (CIL I2 581), Minnius, as its leading figure, was arrested in Ardea (Liv. 39,17,6; 19,2). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibl…

Hipponicus

(147 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἱππόνικος; Hippónikos). Son of  Callias and  Elpinice, the (half)sister of  Cimon, rich Athenian (And. 1,130; Lys. 19,48) from the family of the Kerykes, in the office of dadoûchos in Eleusis like his father ( Mysteria). As stratēgós in 427/6 BC, he led the successful campaign against the Tanagraeans alongside Eurymedon [4] (Thuc. 3,91,4f.; And. 1,115; Diod. Sic. 12,65,3ff.). He died shortly before 422. In her first marriage, his wife was married to  Pericles (Plut. Pericles 24,8, where it is falsely assumed that …

Hellanodikai

(252 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἑλλανοδίκαι; Hellanodíkai, also Ἑλληνοδίκαι; Hellēnodíkai), the supervisors and judges at the competitions of Olympia, Nemea (IG IV 587) and the Asclepiea in Epidaurus (IG IV 946; 1508). The hellanodikai of the Olympic Games were chosen in Elis from the local aristocracy for one festival in each case. The office (official oath: Paus. 5,24,10), the sacred components of which are still reflected in a cleansing ritual of the hellenodikai (Paus. 5,16,8), probably involved large financial outlays. The number of hellenodikai was initially restricted to one or tw…

Canidius

(126 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] C. Crassus, P., of unknown descent. In 43 BC, he served as legate of  Lepidus in Gaul (Cic. Fam. 10,21,4). Probably holder of a command position under M.  Antonius [I 9] in the Perusine War (App. B Civ. 5,50; MRR 2,373). Cos. suff. at the end of 40 BC; from 36 BC, he fought successfully in Armenia and in the Caucasus, and took part in Antony's Parthian campaigns. In the winter 33/32 BC, he returned to Antony from a command in Armenia, was in charge of the land forces at Actium; after the defeat, he fled to join Antony in …

Lamis

(131 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λάμις; Lámis). From Megara, leader of a party of Megarian colonists who, probably together with settlers from Chalcis [1], went to Sicily around 730 BC. There the Megarians separated from the Chalcidians, and, the latter already having occupied the most favourable locations (Naxos, Catana, Leontini), founded Trotilum. They accepted an invitation from Leontini to drive out the Sicels ( Siculi) and live in the polis, but they were soon driven out themselves, founding Thapsus (moder…

Gundicharius

(146 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Gundahar, Gundihar, Guntiar). Traditionally the son of Gibica; king of the Burgundians. In AD 411 with the king of the Alanians Goar, G. elevated the Gaulish senator  Jovinus in Mainz to the status of emperor (Olympiodorus FHG 4, 61 fr. 17). After the latter's death in 417, he entered into a   foedus with  Honorius (Chron. min. 1,467; 2,155 Mommsen), but in 435 invaded the province of Belgica I where  Aetius [2] defeated him (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,234f.). In 436 G., allegedly with 20,000 Burgundians, was killed in…

Anaxander

(132 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀνάξανδρος; Anáxandros). [German version] [1] Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war According to Paus. 3,3,4 and 4,15,3 Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war, Agiad, son of Eurycrates (Hdt. 7,204). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Leader of the Thebans at  Thermopylae (480) According to Aristophanes of Boeotia (FGrH 379 F 6) leader of the Thebans at  Thermopylae (480). Cf. Hdt. 7,233, who names Leontiades in this position. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [3] Theban, mercenary commander in the Peloponnesian War Theban, 411 BC m…
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