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Scholasticism

(2,460 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
Today the term "Scholasticism" is usually used as a vague collective designation for medieval schools and scholarship in general and for medieval philosophy and theology in particular. Criticized as m…
Date: 2016-08-09

Curricula

(1,052 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
Medieval education did not begin to follow formal syllabuses until 13th-century university study and then finally after the humanistic reforms of the 15th century. Apart from this development, we cann…
Date: 2016-08-09

Monasticism

(1,065 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
Religious reservations regarding secular knowledge as well as the religious knowledge of the laity, set forth in ecclesiastical regulations and embodied in calls for reform, led to controversies about…
Date: 2016-08-09

Regions

(660 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
In the historical disciplines it is now generally accepted that geopolitical boundaries are able to inform our understanding of historical reality in medieval Europe and the self-perception of medieva…
Date: 2016-08-09

Europe – “Foreign”

(820 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
Contrary to the views of previous research, it is clear today that despite the lack of modern statehood in the regimes of the Middle Ages, an internal and external can be distinguished in political-di…
Date: 2016-08-09

Trivium

(2,197 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
Today we still describe easily understood coherences as "trivial." This label is based on the notion that acquired contents of human knowledge can be categorized within a hierarchy of (academic) disci…
Date: 2016-08-09

Quadrivium

(1,797 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
Within the academic canon of the septem artes liberales (seven liberal arts), the three language-oriented disciplines of the trivium (→trivium) were followed by four mathematical disciplines of the classroom …
Date: 2016-08-09

Forms of Knowledge Mediation

(815 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
Not unlike "communication" (→interaction and communication), "mediality" is a technical term in modern scholarship and theory that can be used to describe historical phenomena. A contemporary term, the Latin medium (medium, instr…
Date: 2016-08-09

Interaction and Communication

(970 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
In current usage, every action involving human beings, including historical actions, can be described as interaction or communication; the two terms can be treated as virtually synonymous. However, if…
Date: 2016-08-09

The World

(836 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
The traditional medieval interpretation of the world involved a set of binary oppositions: the finite reality of our earthly life in time and space ( saeculum), set against the eternal life promised by God; and secondly, the …
Date: 2016-08-09

Europe – “Domestic”

(1,923 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
The historical sciences have seen a broadening of their defining focus of interest since the mid-20th century, at the latest its final third. No longer do historical events in the fields of politics a…
Date: 2016-08-09

Modes of Thought and their Methodology

(730 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
The inevitable tension between the traditions of antiquity ("pagan," from the Christian perspective), whose encounter with Christian civilization led to the emergence of Western civilization after the…
Date: 2016-08-09

Lectures, Disputations

(828 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
In the Middle Ages, in contrast to the modern era, the communication of knowledge did not emphasize individual reading and learning but collective forms of acquisition and memorization: recitation of …
Date: 2016-08-09

Scholars

(1,145 words)

Author(s): Martin Kintzinger
In the medieval understanding, scholars were not viewed as a distinct social unit. Neither ideal-typical models of social order (Adalbero of Laon) nor the recorded customary laws (feudal order) were f…
Date: 2016-08-09