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al-ʿAynī

(717 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W.
, abū muḥammad maḥmūd b. aḥmad b. mūsā badr al dīn , was born 17 Ramadan 762/ 21 July 1361, at ʿAynṭāb, a place situated between Aleppo and Antioch. He belonged to a family of scholars (his father was a ḳāḍī ) and began his studies at an early age, first in his birthplace and then at Aleppo. When he was 29 years old, he visited Damascus, Jerusalem and Cairo. He was initiated into the mystical doctrines of Ṣūfism in the latter town and for a time entered the darwīs̲h̲ monastery of the Barḳūḳiyya, which had recently…

D̲j̲allāb

(674 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W.
, or, according to the dialect, d̲j̲allāba or d̲j̲allābiyya , an outer garment used in certain parts of the Mag̲h̲rib, which is very wide and loose with a hood and two armlets. The d̲j̲allāb is made of a quadrangular piece of cloth, which is much longer than it is broad. By sewing together the two short ends a wide cylinder is formed. Its upper opening is also sewn up except for a piece in the centre where a hole is required for the head and neck. Holes are cut on each side for the arms. When the garment i…

ʿAbāʾ

(537 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W.
( ʿabāʾa, ʿabāya), the name of a kind of dress used by the Arabs. Native lexicographers generally give to ʿabāʾ the value of a collective name, of which ʿabāʾa, or ʿabāya (both forms are old) would be the form of unity. ʿAbāʾ, however, has already been used by classic writers with the meaning of unity, and the word has thus subsisted in the dialects of Mesopotamia) of Arabia and even of Egypt. It is also in the form of ʿabāʾ that the Turks have borrowed it, though they discard the initial guttural ( ābā). On the other hand, ʿabāya is the word now generally employed when speaking of the extre…

Darbukka

(239 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W.
or darabukka in Egypt, dirbakki in Syria, darbūka in the Mag̲h̲rib; given as a neologism by Arab lexicographers in the form darābukka: a kind of drum, consisting of a tube enlarged or expanded at one of its ends; this end is covered with a skin (fish-skin in Egypt and goat-skin in the Mag̲h̲rib) and the other is open. In the east the tube of the darabukka is usually of wood or earthenware (often painted or decorated) but occasionally though more rarely of copper. To play on this instrument it is placed under the forearm, with the large and covered end outermo…

Ḏj̲īm

(1,018 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W.
, the name of the fifth consonant in the Arabic alphabet; its numerical value is 3. The letter d̲j̲īm denotes, according to the dialect, perceptibly different sounds, whose area of articulation extends from the soft palate to the front of the hard palate. It is generally agreed that the sound originally denoted by d̲j̲īm must originally have been g, that is a voiced post-palatal velar, corresponding to the Hebrew gīmel, the Aramaic gāmal and the Ethiopie gaml. But it is probable that at quite an early period, this sound evolved from closed to half closed and to a pure a…

Ḏj̲ellāb

(680 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W.
, or, according to the dialect, Ḏj̲etlāba or Ḏj̲ellābīya, “an outer garment used in certain parts of the Mag̲h̲rib, which is very wide and loose with a hood and two armlets. The Ḏj̲ellāb is made of a quadrangular piece of cloth, which is much longer than it is broad. By sewing together the two short ends a wide cylinder is formed. Its upper opening is also sewn up except for a piece in the centre where a hole is required for the head and neck. Holes are cut on each side for the arms. When the garment is put on, the seam joinin…

al-K̲h̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī

(750 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W.
, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. T̲h̲ābit, known as al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī, was born on the 24th Ḏj̲umādā II, 392 (1002) at Darzid̲j̲ān, a large village on the west bank of the Tigris below Bag̲h̲dād. The son of a k̲h̲aṭīb (preacher), he began his studies very early and spent his youth travelling in search of ḥadīt̲h̲. In this way he visited Baṣra, Nīs̲h̲āpūr, Iṣfahān, Hamadān and Damascus. Finally settling in Bag̲h̲dād, he “held the office of a k̲h̲aṭīb there and this was the origin of the name al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲…

Dawār

(328 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W.
, “an encampment of Beduin Arabs, where the tents are arranged in a circle or ellipse, the empty space in the middle being reserved for the flocks”; this very ancient form of encampment is found among the Beduins of the East (North Syria, Mesopotamia) and among all the nomads or semi-nomads of North Africa; and the name dawār which is given to it appears in certain mediaeval travellers and geographers. In the east, the exact form of the word is dawār or dwār, and in the Mag̲h̲rib it is dūwār or dowwār (plur. dwāwīr). The number of tents which make up a dawār is very variable; it may be as many a…

Abū Dawūd

(436 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W.
Sulaimān b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ al-Azdī al-Sid̲j̲istānī, traditionist, born in 202 (817). In his youth he undertook long journeys in search of the ḥadīt̲h̲. He studied at Bagdad under the Imām Aḥmed b. Ḥanbal; eventually he settled definitely at Baṣra, where he died in 275 (888). Abū Dāwūd’s principal work is a collection of traditions, known under the generic title of Kitāb al-sunan. Like all other books of this name, Abū Dāwūd’s work is distinguished from the collections of traditions known as Ḏj̲āmiʿ in that it does not concern itself with historical, ethical or dogmatical en…

al-ʿAynī

(659 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W.
, Abū Muḥammad Maḥmūd b. Ahmad b. Mūsā Badr al-dīn, naquit le 17 ramaḍān 762/ 21 juillet 1361 à ʿAynṭāb, localité située entre Alep et Antioche. Il appartenait à une famille de lettrés (son père était ḳāḍī ) et commença de bonne heure ses études, d’abord dans sa ville natale, puis à Alep. A l’âge de 29 ans, il visita Damas, Jérusalem et le Caire. Initié aux doctrines mystiques du ṣūfisme dans cette dernière ville, il entra quelque temps au couvent de darwīs̲h̲s de la Barḳūḳiyya, nouvellement fondé. Après divers voyages à Damas et à sa ville natale, il se fixa définitivement au Caire et y fut nommé muḥ…

Ḏj̲allāb

(724 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W.
, ou, suivant les parlers, d̲j̲allāba ou d̲j̲allābiyya, vêtement de dessus en usage dans certaines régions du Mag̲h̲rib, et constitué par un sac très ample, muni d’un capuchon et de courtes manches. Le d̲j̲allāb est essentiellement formé d’une pièce d’étoffe rectangulaire, beaucoup plus longue que large. Les bords des petits côtés sont réunis par une couture, et on obtient ainsi un large fourreau; l’ouverture supérieure de ce fourreau est fermé par une couture, sauf en sa partie médiane, où une solution de continuité de la cout…

Dawār

(357 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W. | Colin], G. S.
, campement d’arabes bédouins, où les tentes sont rangées en cercle ou en ellipse, formant une sorte d’enceinte autour de l’espace libre du milieu ( murāḥ) où le bétail passe la nuit; cette disposition très ancienne des campements se retrouve chez les Bédouins d’Orient (Syrie du Nord, Mésopotamie) et chez tous les nomades ou seminomades de l’Afrique du Nord; et le nom de dawār qui lui est donné, apparaît déjà chez certains voyageurs et géographes du moyen âge. En Orient, la forme exacte du mot est dawār ou dwār, dans le Mag̲h̲rib c’est dūwār ou dowwār (pl. dwāwīr). Le nombre des tentes qui …

D̲j̲īm

(1,889 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W. | Fleisch, H. | Burton-Page, J.
5th letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed d̲j̲ ; numerical value 3, so agreeing, like dāl , with the order of the letters of the Syriac (and Canaanite) alphabet [see abd̲j̲ad ]. It represents a g (occlusive, postpalatal1, voiced) in the ancient Semitic (and in common Semitic). In Arabic, This articulation has evolved: the point of articulation has been carried forward, in an unconditioned way 2, to the middle and prepalatal region, as a consequence of which it readily developed elements of palatalization ( g y and d y) and affrication ( d̲j̲). A simplification of the articulation …

Dawār

(401 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W. | Colin, G.S.
, an encampment of Arab Bedouins in which the tents (sing, k̲h̲ayma ) are arranged in a circle or an ellipse, forming a sort of enceinte around the open space in the middle ( murāḥ ) where the cattle pass the night; this very ancient way of laying out an encampment is still to be found among the Bedouins of the east (northern Syria, Mesopotamia) and among all the nomads or semi-nomads of North Africa. The name of dawār which is given to it appears already in the writings of certain travellers ¶ and geographers of the middle ages. In the East, the exact form of the word is dawār or dwār

Ḏj̲īm

(1,774 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W. | Fleisch, H. | Burton-Page, J.
, 5ème lettre de l’alphabet arabe, transcrite d̲j̲; valeur numérique: 3, en accord, comme pour dāl, avec l’ordre des lettres dans l’alphabet syriaque (et cananéen) [voir Abd̲j̲ad]. Il représente un g (occlusive, postpalatale 1, sonore) du sémitique ancien (et du sémitique commun), En arabe, cette articulation a évolué: le point¶ d’articulation a été, d’une façon inconditionnée 2 reporté en avant dans la région médio-et prépalatale, ce qui facilement entraine des phénomènes de mouillure ( g υ et d υ) et d’affrication ( d̲j̲). Une simplification de l’articulation en une spirant…