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Reiske, Johann Jacob

(902 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
German classical philologist and Arabist. Born Zörbig (Leipzig) 25. 12. 1716, died Leipzig 14. 8. 1774. 1728–1732 attended the Gymnasium of the Francke’sches Waisenhaus (orphanage) in Halle; 1733–1738 formally studying theology at Leipzig, really teaching himself Greek and Arabic. 1738–1746 at Leiden; 1746 completed medical training there, but this did not lead to work in practice. Returned to Leipzig 1746; 1747 prof. ext. of Arabic there. Rector of the Nicolaischule at Leipzig from 1758 to his death. Career, works and influence The son of a tanner, R. earned his living prio…

Dindorf, Karl Wilhelm

(707 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
German classical philologist. Born Leipzig 2. 1. 1802, died there 1. 8. 1883. Brother of the philologist Ludwig D. Attended Thomasschule; studied classical philology from 1817 with Christian Daniel Beck and Gottfried Hermann in Leipzig. Doctorate 1828, 1828–1833 prof. ext. of literary history (without lecturing duties), all Leipzig. Resigned in anger at not being considered to succeed Beck. Thereafter editor-in-chief of the new edition of the Thesaurus Graecae Linguae at Paris publishing house A. F. Didot . From 1846 a corresponding member of the Berlin Academy of Scien…

Bekker, Immanuel

(934 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
German classical philologist. Born 21. 5. 1785 in Berlin, died there 7. 6. 1871. B. took the name Immanuel (after Kant) in place of his baptismal names August Emanuel. Attended the Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster in Berlin. 1803–1806 studied classical philology at Halle; doctorate 1806; July 1806 Inspector of the Philological Seminar at Halle. Tutor from December 1806; from 1810 prof. ext., from 1811 prof. ord. in classical philology at Berlin. From 1815 member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences [17. 364 f.]. Biography and scholarly background The son of a locksmith, B. earned his own…

Lachmann, Karl

(1,150 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
German classical philologist and Germanic scholar. Born Karl Konrad Friedrich Wilhelm L., Braunschweig 4. 3. 1793, died Berlin 13. 3. 1851. Son of a pastor. Schooled at Katharineum in Braunschweig. 1809 studied for one semester at Leipzig, mainly theology (just one philology lecture from Gottfried Hermann); from 1809 studied especially classical philology at Göttingen, particularly with Ludolph Dissen, then also early German and English literature with Georg Friedrich Benecke. 1814 doctorate at …

Valckenaer, Lodewijk Caspar

(434 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Dutch classical philologist. Born Leeuwarden 7. 6. 1715, died Leiden 15. 3. 1785. Son of a jurist. From 1731, after attending Latin school at Leeuwarden, studied theology at Franeker, also Greek philosophy with Tiberius Hemsterhuis; doctorate Franeker 1735 [5. Vol. 1, 3–102]. From 1737 studied especially Hebrew at Leiden, and studied the Bible there. 1740 deputy rector of Latin school at Kampen (Friesland); 1741 succeeded Hemsterhuis as prof. of Greek and Historia patria at Franeker; 1765 succeeded him as prof. at Leiden with the same portfolio [6. 97–251]. Work and influence As a stu…

Schleiermacher, Friedrich Daniel Ernst

(904 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
German philosopher, theologian and philologist. Born Breslau 21. 11. 1768, died Berlin 12. 2. 1834. School 1785–1787 in the seminary of the Unitas Fratrum ( Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine) in Barby; 1787–1789 studied theology, philosophy and classical philology at Halle with first theological examination in 1790. 1790–1804 teacher and preacher in various places, including the Charité in Berlin 1796–1802. 1804 univ. chaplain and prof. ext. in theology and philosophy at Halle; February 1806 prof. ord. there. From May 1807, public lectures in Berlin. June 1807, theological doctorate in a…

Hemsterhuis, Tiberius

(889 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Hemsterhusius; Dutch classical philologist and mathematician. Baptized Groningen 18. 1. 1685 (or: born 1. 2. 1685 [11. Chap. 11]), died Leiden 7. 4. 1766. Son of a doctor. After Latin school at Groningen (1698), studied theology – but also philosophy and mathematics – with Johannes Jacob Bernoulli at Univ. of Groningen. 1700–1704 studied Greek and Latin languages, philology and history at Univ. of Leiden with Jacob Perizonius; worked to put in order the manuscripts of the library there. From 1704, prof. of mathematics and philosophy at the Athenaeum illustre in Amsterdam. From 1717…

Ritschl, Friedrich Wilhelm

(1,019 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
German classical philologist. Born Gross-vargula (Erfurt) 6. 4. 1806, died Leipzig 9. 11. 1876. Son of a pastor. School in Erfurt and Wittenberg; 1825–1829 studied classical philology, initially for one year at Leipzig, primarily with Gottfried Hermann, then at Halle with Christian Karl Reisig; 1829 doctorate and habil. there. 1832 prof. ext. in Halle (unpaid); 1833 prof. ext. at Breslau, from 1834 prof. ord. there. 1836/37 tour of Italy to collate manuscripts. 1839 prof. ord. in classical philo…

Wyttenbach, Daniel

(485 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Swiss-Dutch classical philologist and philosopher. Born Daniel Albert W., Bern, 7. 8. 1746, died blinded at Oegstgeest (Netherlands) 17. 1. 1820, funerary inscription calling him civis Bernas. Son of a theology prof.; 1760–1768 studied theology at Marburg; 1768–1770 studied classical philology at Göttingen with Christian Gottlob Heyne and 1770/71 at Leiden with David Ruhnken and Lodewijk Caspar Valckenaer. 1771 teacher at the Remonstrant Gymnasium in Amsterdam; 1779 prof. of philosophy and classical philology at the Athenaeum Illustre there. 1799–1818 prof. of history, …

Hesiodus (Hesiod)

(1,477 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
lived in Ascra (Boeotia) around 700 BC; roughly one generation younger than Homerus; one of the earliest Greek poets. Works A large number of works were ascribed to Hesiod in Antiquity; three compositions are preserved in their entirety, namely: Theogony, Works and Days, and


(261 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
lived in Alexandria around 175 BC; Greek mathematician and astronomer. E / T For editions, translations, and commentaries of Perì dṓdekaédrou kaì eikosaédrou cf. Euclides [3], Stoicheîa. Works …

Aristoteles (Aristotle)

(2,199 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 384 BC in Stagira (Chalcidice); d. 322 BC in Chalcis (Euboea); Greek polymath of singular importance. Works Ancient catalogues of Aristotle’s works list approximately 200 titles. Thirty-eight works that have been transmitted in manuscript form are collected in the Corpus Aristotelicum; it contains some spurious material. One other work, the Athènaíòn politeía, became known through papyrus finds. The general nature of these writings is didactic; they were intended for teaching purposes, and were never published. Also known are fragments of 19 dialogues and the Protrepticus, an…


(613 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC in Megara (Greece);…

Presocratics (Presocratic philosophers)

(1,301 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Modern term to describe various groups of Greek philosophers who lived in the period before, or contemporary with, Socrates [2] (470–399 BC). In particular, this included the members of the Milesian School (Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes [1]), the Eleatic School (Parmenides, Zeno [1] of Elea and Melissus [2]), Pythagoras [2] and his school, Xenophanes [1], Heraclitus [1], Empedocles [1], the Atomists (Leucippus [5] and Democritus [1]), as well as the Sophists (Gorgias [2], Hippias [5] and Pr…


(455 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca. 460 BC in Athens; d. ca. 400 BC; Greek historian. Works Author of an unfinished monograph on the Peloponnesian War, in eight books. Papyri The papyri have contributed significantly to the evaluation of the medieval manuscripts. Translations The work was translated into vernacular languages as early as the 16th cent. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating

Origenes (Origen)

(803 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca AD 185/6 in Alexandria; d. in AD 254, probably in Tyre; important Greek Christian theologian and philosopher; teacher at the Catechetical School of Alexandria, and successor to Clemens [3] of Alexandria. Works Only a small part of his works is extant, half of which in Latin translation. Prominent among the lost works are his commentaries and homilies on the Bible. …


(120 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Terminus ante quem: middle of the 1st cent. BC; author of a utopian Greek novel. Works Fragments of a novel are preserved in the paraphrase of Diodorus [18], Library of History 2,55–60. Works …

Frontinus, Sextus Iulius

(676 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
2nd half of the 1st cent. and early 2nd cent. AD; Roman technical and military author, and high-ranking holder of public offices. Manuscripts The Strategemata are preserved in more than 80 manuscripts that fall into two classes. The inferior class is represented by more than 80 manuscripts, while the superi…
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