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Actionality (Aktionsart): Modern Hebrew

(1,998 words)

Author(s): Laks, Lior
Actionality (also known as Aktionsart) is an aspect of a verb phrase that relates to the way it is structured in relation to time. Actionality should be distinguished from grammatical aspect. The former is an inherent invariant part of an eventuality, which can denote a certain aspectual content according to its semantic value, while the latter relates to a specific verb form. Vendler (1957) classified verbs in four categories with respect to actionality: state, activity, achievement, and accomplishment (for further discussion see also Comrie 1976; Dowty 1…

Inchoative Verb

(774 words)

Author(s): Laks, Lior
Inchoative verbs denote a change of state, beginning, or becoming, and they are also considered achievements according to Vendler’s (1967) aspectual classes. Hebrew inchoative verbs are usually morphologically marked (see Berman 1978; Schwarzwald 2001; 2008 among others). Most Hebrew inchoative verbs are formed in templates such as hitpaʿel (e.g., התכווץ hitkaveṣ ‘shrink’), nif ʿal (e.g., נרדם nirdam ‘fall asleep’), but some of them are also formed in qal ( paʿal) (e.g., נפל nafal ‘fall’) or hif ʿil (e.g., הלבין hilbin ‘become white’). The term ‘inchoative verb’ overlaps t…