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(521 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(adjective: S̲h̲arīs̲h̲ī) was the Arabic name for the modern Jerez de la Frontera, an important town in Spain, in the province of Cadiz, a little north of this town. It has to be distinguished from Jerez de les Caballeros, the S̲h̲arīs̲h̲a, of the Muslim period (cf. al-Idrīsī, Descr. de l’Esp., pp. 175, 186, 211, 226), a little town in the province of Badajoz, south of this capital and west of Zafra. Jerez de la Frontera, from its position in a country blessed with remarkable fertility, was while under Muslim rule as at the present day a rich …


(288 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, arabicised form of Secunda, name of a little town opposite Cordova on the left bank of the Guadalquivir. According to al-Maḳḳarī and Ibn G̲h̲ālib it was originally surrounded by a rampart. It was here that a decisive battle was fought in 747 a. d. between the Ma’addl clan under Yūsuf al-Fihrī [q. v.] and al-Sumail b. Ḥātim [q. v.] and the Yamanī clan commanded by Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭār who was defeated. Later at the zenith of the Umayyad caliphate, Secunda became one of the richest suburbs of Cordova and was also called the “southern suburb” ( al-rabaḍ al-d̲j̲anūbī). The celebrated Abu ’l-Walīd …


(713 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, honorific laḳab of the principal sovereign of the dynasty of Berber origin of the Banū Ḏh̲i ’l-Nūn, who founded a kingdom with Toledo as its capital on the fall of the Umaiyad caliphate of Cordova in the first quarter of the eleventh century [cf. the article d̲h̲u ’l-nūn]. Al-Maʾmūn, whose full name was Yaḥyā b. Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿĀmir b. Muṭarrif b. Ḏh̲i ’l-Nūn, succeeded his father, Ismāʿīl al-Ẓāfir, on the latter’s death in 429 (1037) and spent his long reign in incessant warfare with all his Muslim neighbours, the dynasties of…


(391 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a Berber chief of the Mag̲h̲rib, who rebelled against Arab authority in 122 (739/40). He belonged to the tribe of the Maṭg̲h̲āra and the historians give him the surname of al-Ḥaḳir “the low-born” because he was of humble origin and before his rebellion had been a water-seller in the market of al-Ḳairawān. After the recall of Mūsā b. Nuṣair at the end of the first century a. h., rebellion began to smoulder in North Africa. ʿUmar b. Abd Allāh al-Murādī, governor of Tangier, and a grandson of ʿUḳba b. Nāfiʿ, Ḥabīb b. Abī ʿUbaida, governor of Sūs, were inflicting …


(162 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲alīl Abū ʿAbd Allāh, Mag̲h̲ribī author of the xvth century, lived at the court of the Zaiyānid rulers of Tlemcen whose historiographer he became and died in Ḏj̲umādā II 899 (Feb. 1494). Besides several small works now lost and fatwās given by al-Wans̲h̲arīs̲h̲ī in his Miʿyār, we have from the pen of al-Tanasī a history of his patrons, Naẓm al-Durr wa ’l-ʿIḳyān fī S̲h̲araf Banī Zaiyān, ed. and partly transl. by Bargès, Histoire des Beni Zayan, rois de Tlemcen, Paris 1852 and Complément de Phistoire des Beni Zeiyan, rois de Tlemcen, ouvrage du cheîkhal-Ten…


(2,469 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Spanish el-Cid, the Cid, the name by which the most celebrated and the most popular of the heroes of Castillan chivalry is known; he played a preponderating political part in Muslim Spain of the second half of the eleventh century, and we can now gain an idea of his real personality by removing all the legendary matter that has grown up around his life and his exploits. It is to the Dutch scholar R. Dozy, that the honour is due of having established, as a result of his examination in 1844 of the manuscript of the Ḏh̲ak̲h̲īra of Ibn Bassām preserved in Gotha, that the story of the Crónica General of Al…


(167 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, in Arabic S̲h̲aḳūbīya, an important and ancient town in Spain, now the capital of the province of the same name, situated in Old Castile, 60 miles N.W. of Madrid, 3,300 feet above sea-level, on an isolated rock near one of the last spurs of the Sierra de Guadarrama. This town is famous for its Roman (aqueduct) and Christian (alcazar) remains and was only under Muslim rule for a short time It was recaptured in 140 (757/758) by Alfonso I of Castile or his son Fruela I at the same time as Zamora,…


(251 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name given in Muslim Spain to the administrative circle ( kūra) comprising the south of the Peninsula, the capital of which was successively Archidona (Arabic: Urd̲j̲ud̲h̲ūna) and Malaga. The usual Arabic orthography is in particular this is the form found in the Muʿd̲j̲am al-Buldān of Yāḳūt; but some Spanish MSS. Give the true orthography , more in keeping with the local pronunciation Reiyo (Raiyu) attested by Ibn Ḥawḳal. It is only, as Dozy thought, a transcription of the Latin regio (no doubt Malacitana regio); the suggestion put forward by Gayangos of a connection with…


(542 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Portuguese Lisboa, a city at the mouth of the Tagus, now the capital of Portugal, with 435,000 inhabitants; tradition ascribes its foundation to Ulysses and it originally bore the Phoenician name of Olisippo. Under the Romans it received the name of Felicitas Julia and formed a municipium. It was under the rule of the Alans from 407, of the Visigoths from 585 to 715 when it passed into the power of the Muslims. For the Arabic transcription of the name of Lisbon we find the two forms Lis̲h̲būna and Us̲h̲būna with or without the article (cf. especially, David Lopes, Os Arabes nas obras de Alex…


(194 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Moḥammad Ibn al-Sīd, a famous grammarian born in Badajoz [q. v.] (Ar. Baṭalyaws), in 444 (1052), died in the middle of Rad̲j̲ab 521 (1127) at Valencia [q. v.], where he had settled. He is best known for his commentary on the Adab al-Kātib of Ibn Ḳutaiba [cf. ii. 399], which he entitled al-Iḳtiḍāb fī S̲h̲arḥ Adab al-Kuttāb (ed. by ʿAbd Allāh al-Bustānī, Bairūt 1901). He wrote several other books, including al-Inṣāf fi ’l-Tanbīh ʿala ’l-Asbāb allatī awd̲j̲abat al-Ik̲h̲tilāf (Cairo 1319 H.), a commentary on the Muwaṭṭaʾ of Mālik, a Fahrasa and a Kitāb al-Ḥadaʾiḳ. (E. L…


(401 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a little town in the N. E. of Spain on the railway from Madrid to Saragossa, about halfway between these two towns, some 3500 feet above sea-level on the left bank of the Jalón. In the Muslim period it was called Madīnat-Sālim, which is not to be confused with Madīnat Ibn al-Salīm or Ibn Ṣalīm, in the Seville district (Idrīsī, Descr. de l’Espagne, 174/208 and note 5, 177/215), the modern Grazalema in the province of Cadiz. The Arab geographers give brief descriptions of Medinaceli. According to Idrīsī, it was a large town built in a hollow with many large buildings, ga…


(956 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, formerly called al-Maʿmūra, a town of Morocco, on the Atlantic coast at the mouth of the Wādī Sabū (Sebou), built on a rocky promontory which dominates the valley of the river. Situated on the southern extremity of the plain of G̲h̲arb and 20 miles to the North East of Salé (Salā) it enjoys a geographical position of the first importance. A port is shortly to be created here for ships of heavy tonnage, which cannot sail up the Wādī Sabū as far as the river port of Kenitra (Ar. al-Ḳunaiṭira, “the little bridge”) situated 6 miles as the crow flies from the mouth of the river. It is generally agreed t…


(774 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Ziyād b. ʿAbd Allāh, a Berber chief and leader of the Muslim forces in the conquest of al-Andalus. Ibn Id̲h̲ārī gives a complete genealogy of him and connects him with the tribe of the Nafza. Idrīsī says he was a Berber of the Zanāta; Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn calls him Ṭāriḳ b. Ziyād al-Lait̲h̲ī. Others again say he was a Persian, a native of Hamadān. After the reconnaissance undertaken by Ṭarīf ¶ [q. v.] in the south of Spain in Ramaḍān 96 (July 710), Mūsā b. Nuṣair, emboldened by its success, entrusted the command of an expedition on a larger scale to his client Ṭāriḳ b.…


(177 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Muʾmin (or ʿAbd al-Munʿim, according to al-Suyūṭī, followed by Brockelmann) b. Mūsā b. ʿĪsā b. ʿAbd al-Muʾmin al-Ḳaisī Kamāl al-Dīn, Arab author of Spain, a native of S̲h̲arīs̲h̲ [q. v.], where he died in 619 (1222). He wrote a commentary on the al-Īḍāḥ of al-Fārisī and another on the al-Ḏj̲umal of al-Zad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ī and wrote a treatise on prosody. He also compiled an anthology of ancient Arabic poems and made a synopsis of the Nawādir of al-Ḳalī; but he is best known as a commentator on the Maḳāmāt of al-Ḥarīrī. He wrote three commentaries on the Assemblies, …


(2,079 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a town in Spain, capital of the modern province of this name and formerly capital of the kingdom of Aragon, on the right bank of the Ebro 600 feet above sea-level in the centre of a well watered and flourishing region (la Huerta). The modern Spanish name Zaragoza corresponds to the Latin Caesarea Augusta, a name given in 728 a. u. c. to the military colony founded by Augustus on the site of the ancient Salduba of the Iberians. The name of the town passed into Arabic in the form Saraḳusṭa ( nisba: Saraḳusṭī) probably through the Gothic form Cesaragosta. From the time it was taken by th…


(1,030 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, properly the corner of a building, was at first appled to the cell of the Christian monk (cf. the Greek γωνία), then to a small mosque or praying room; the word still has this meaning in the Muslim east in contrast to a more important mosque ( masd̲j̲id or d̲j̲āmiʿ). On the other hand the term zāwiya has retained a much more general meaning in North Africa and is applied to a building or group of buildings of a religious nature, which resembles a monastery and a school. An excellent definition of the Mag̲h̲ribī zāwiya was given as early as 1847 by Daumas ( La Kabylie, p. 60) and it seems to be in …


(2,149 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
a large confederation of Berber tribes, belonging to the Zanāta group and related to the confederations of the Banū Ifran [q. v.] and Banū Imīyān. These tribes, who led a nomadic life, in the middle ages roved over the country between the valley of the Chćlif as far as Tlemcen and the mountains inhabited by the Madyūna. They were easily converted to Islām and their chief Ṣūlāt b. Wazmār is to have gone to Madīna to the Caliph ʿUt̲h̲mān and been confirmed by him in his rule over the Mag̲h̲rāwa. …


(200 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a small town in Northern Spain, situated eight miles south-east of Valladolid and now famous for its castle where are preserved the archives of the kingdom of Spain. The name is transcribed in Arabic S̲h̲ant Mānkas in the Kitāb al-ʿIbar of Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn. It was near Simancas that in 327 (939) the armies of the Umaiyad Caliph ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III were severely defeated by the Christian King Ramiro II. This battle itself was only the prelude to a still more bloody encounter, the “battle of the ditch” ( waḳʿat al-k̲h̲andaḳ), or battle of Alhandega, which took place soon after to the sout…

ʿOḳba b. Nāfiʿ

(1,500 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. ʿAbd Ḳais al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī al-Fihrī, the famous general of the first century a. h. who endeavoured by consolidating the first successes of the Arab conquest in North Africa to put an end to the resistance of the Berbers but finally perished after a troubled career at the hands of African rebels. The data supplied by the historians regarding the career of ʿOḳba are relatively abundant but like all that relates to the beginnings of the expansion of Islām in North Africa have frequently to be taken with caution. They come from later traditions, and …


(1,196 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Arabic Mālaḳa (ethnic: Mālaḳī), a large town in Spain on the Mediterranean and capital of the same name, has at the present day 133,000 inhabitants. It is built at the centre of a bay commanded by the hill of Gibralfaro (the Ḏj̲abal Fāroh of Idrīsī). The town is traversed from north to south by the “rambla” (i.e. the bed, usually dry [Arabic ramla]) of the Guadalmedina ¶ ( wādi ’l-madīna) which, while very often dried up, sometimes overflows in the rainy season. To the west of the town lies the Vega or Hoya of Malaga where the vegetation is exotic and extremely luxurious. Malaga, the ancient Malaca…
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