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(286 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū Yaḥyā Muḥammad b. Maʿn b. Muḥammad Ibn Ṣumādiḥ al-Tud̲j̲ībi , second ruler of the dynasty of Tud̲j̲ībids [ q.v.] of the kingdom of Almería [see al-mariyya ], reigned 443-484/1051-1091. Gifted like his contemporary al-Muʿtamid [ q.v.] of Seville with a certain amount of poetic talent, he made his capital during his long reign one of the great centres of culture in the Peninsula. But like the other mulūk al-ṭawāʿif [ q.v.] of Spain, he was for the most of his time at war with one or another of his neighbours. He was probably implicated in the conspiracy fomented…


(717 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
the honorific laḳab by which the second of the ʿĀmirid dictators of Muslim Spain is best known, the son of the celebrated al-Manṣūr [ q.v.], Abū Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik Ibn Abī ʿĀmir al-Maʿāfirī . He was invested with the office of ḥād̲j̲ib by the caliph His̲h̲ām II, on the death of his father, on 28 Ramaḍān 392/10 Aug. 1002, and ruled as absolute master the territory of al-Andalus until his death from angina as he was setting out on an expedition against Castille on 16 Ṣafar 399/20 Oct. 1008. The relatively short period of the ḥid̲j̲āba of ʿAbd al-Malik al-Muẓaffar was…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Abī ʿĀmir

(278 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, nicknamed Sanchuelo (S̲h̲and̲j̲wilo), the "little Sancho" (as he was by his mother a grandson of Sancho Garcés II Abarca, Basque king of Pamplona), son of the famous "majordomo" al-Manṣūr [ q.v.] b. Abī ʿĀmir. He suceeded his elder brother ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.] al-Muẓaffar on his death, 16 Ṣafar 399/20 Oct. 1008, with the consent of the titular ¶ caliph, the Umayyad His̲h̲ām II al-Muʾayyad bi’llāh. Indifferently gifted, vain, debauched, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Sanchuelo, from the moment that he assumed power in Cordova, made one mistake after the other and alienated p…


(157 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, or Almugávares, a name, apparently derived from the Arabic al-mug̲h̲āwir "one who makes hostile incursions", which was given at the end of the Middle Ages to certain contingents of mercenaries levied from among the mountaineers of Aragon, a tough, sober but undisciplined race. Zurita ( Anales , iv, 24) gives a picturesque description of them. These were the troops, fighting on foot, in the service of the Kings of Aragon and Castille, who cut to pieces the French army of Philip III the Bold during his campaign of 1285,…

Aḥmad Bābā

(550 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, otherwise Abu ’l-ʿabbās aḥmad b. aḥmad al-takrūrī al-massūfī , Sudanese jurist and biographer belonging to the Ṣinhād̲j̲ī family of the Āḳīt, born at Tinbuktū (now Timbuktu) 21 Ḏh̲u’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 963/26 Oct. 1556. All his ancestors in the male line were imāms or ḳāḍīs in the Sudanese capital in the 15th and 16th centuries, and he himself rapidly became a faḳīh of repute in learned circles in his country. At the time of the conquest of the Sudan by the Saʿdid Sulṭān of Morocco Aḥmad al-Manṣūr [ q.v.] in 1000/1592, Aḥmad Bābā refused ¶ to recognise the authority of the court of Marrāku…


(384 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
or Mārtula/Martula , Arabic forms of the name Mertola (Span. Mértola), a small town of southern Portugal, situated on the Guadiana (Wādī Ana) at 35 miles/55 km. from the mouth of that river. This place, the ancient Myrtilis of the Romans, enjoyed a certain importance during the period of Islamic domination. It depended administratively on Béja [see bād̲j̲a ] and, according to Yāḳūt and other geographers, was the best-defended stronghold of all the west of the Iberian peninsula. At the end of the 3rd/9th century, it was the headquarters of an independen…


(1,353 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
( Mawlāy ) b. al-S̲h̲arīf b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī , ʿAlid sultan of Morocco and the real founder of the dynasty which still rules the S̲h̲arīfian empire. He was born in 1040/1630-1 in Tāfīlālt [ q.v.] in the south of Morocco, where his ancestors, the Ḥasanī S̲h̲urafāʾ (S̲h̲orfāʾ [ q.v.]) of Sid̲j̲ilmāsa [ q.v.], had founded a flourishing zāwiya [ q.v.] and gradually acquired a fairly considerable political influence, which increased with the decline of the Saʿdian [ q.v.] dynasty. Morocco being at this time plunged into anarchy, the S̲h̲orfāʾ of Tāfīlālt were able rapid…


(289 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, from the Latin serra through the Spanish sierra , is the term applied by certain geographers of Muslim Spain to the mountains which stretch from east to west in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The best definition is given by Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī. According to this author, the mountain range called al-S̲h̲ārāt stretches from the country behind Madīnat Sālim (Medinaceli) to Coimbra. This term therefore describes the mountains now known under the names of Sierra de Guadarram…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(2,967 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of the Marwānid prince who restored the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus, and of four of his successors. 1. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I, called al-Dāk̲h̲il , ‘the Immigrant’, was the son of Muʿāwiya b. His̲h̲ām [ q.v.]. When his relatives were being hunted down by the ʿAbbāsids, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, still a youth—he was born in 113/731—contrived to escape secretly to Palestine, whence, accompanied by his freedman Badr, he made his way first to Egypt, and then to Ifrīḳiya. At Ḳayrawān, the hostile attitude of the governor, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b.…


(1,241 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Murcia , a town in the south-east of Spain, 43 m/140 feet above sea level in the centre of the famous huerta de Murcia (“gardens of Murcia”) watered by the river Segura (Ar. Wādī S̲h̲aḳūra [ q.v.] or Wādi ’lAbyaḍ , “the white river”). Murcia has a large population, 265,000 people (1980), and is the capital of the province of the same name and the see of a bishop; it has also a university; this province has over a million inhabitants, with an area of 11,317 km2. Its port, 40 miles to the south on the Mediterranean coast, is Cartagena, the Ḳarṭād̲j̲anna [ q.v.] or Ḳarṭād̲j̲cinnat al-K̲h̲ulafāʾ


(314 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
abū ʿabd allāh muḥammad b. aḥmad , Moroccan historian and man of letters originating from the Berber tribe of Idā ū-Kansūs which inhabited Sūs in southern Morocco, where he was born in 1211/1797. He studied at Fez under teachers of repute, and then obtained a post at the S̲h̲arīfīan court as secretary. Promoted to the rank of vizier in 1236/1820, he was entrusted by the Sulṭān Mawlāy Sulaymān (Mūlāy Slīmān) with several official missions, but lost his post on the ¶ latter’s death (1238/1822). He retired to Marrākus̲h̲, where he devoted his time to the composition of poetica…

al-Nāṣir al-Salāwī

(1,220 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. K̲h̲ālid b. Ḥammād al-Nāṣirī , a Moroccan historian born at Salé on 22 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1250/20 April 1835, died in the same town on 16 D̲j̲umādā I 1315/13 October 1897. The genealogy of this writer can be traced in a direct line to the founder of the Moroccan brotherhood of the Nāṣiriyya [ q.v.], Aḥmad b. Nāṣir, who was buried in his zāwiya at Tāmgrūt in the valley of the Wādī Darʿa (Drā). He studied in his native town, which had in those days some reputation as a centre of learning, and was a mi…


(865 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. his̲h̲ām b. ʿabd al-D̲j̲abbār b. ʿabd al-Raḥmān al-Nāṣir , abu ’l-Walīd , eleventh Umayyad caliph of Spain. He held power on two occasions, first as successor to His̲h̲ām II al-Muʾayyad [ q.v.], and again in Sulaymān b. Ḥakam al-Mustaʿīn’s [ q.v.] place in the period of general rebellion which at the end of the 4th-beginning of the 5th/11th century immediately preceded the establishment throughout Muslim Spain of petty independent rulers, the Mulūk al- Ṭawāʾif [ q.v.]. The third of the ʿĀmirid ḥād̲j̲ibs , ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. al-Manṣūr, surnamed …


(155 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the Arabic transcription of Poley, the old name of a stronghold in the south of Spain the site of which (as has been shown by Dozy, Rech .3, i, 307, on the strength of information supplied by a charter of 1258) is the modern Aguilar de la Frontera, a small town in the province of Cordova, 12 miles N. W. of Cabra and of Lucena. The town, which played a considerable part in the rising of the famous ʿUmar b. Ḥafṣūn [ q.v.] against the Umayyad amīrs of Cordova, is again mentioned in the 6th/12th century by the geographer al-Idrīsī. The ruins of a fortress which dates from the Mu…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad

(237 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. ʿabd al-raḥmān al-Marwānī , seventh Umayyad Amīr of Cordova. He succeeded his brother al-Mund̲h̲ir on the latter’s death before Bobastro, centre of ʿUmar b. Hafṣūn’s rebellion, on 15 Ṣafar 275/29 June 888. The circumstances of al-Mund̲h̲ir’s death arouse the suspicion that the new sovereign was not quite innocent of it. At his accession, ʿAbd Allāh, born in 229/844, was forty-four years old. His reign, which lasted for a quarter of a century, until his death on 1 Rabīʿ I 300/16 Oct. 912, was described in detail by the chronicler Ibn Ḥayyān, in that part of his Muḳtabis


(99 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, from Arabic madīna "town", is used in French ( médina ) to designate, above all in the Mag̲h̲rib, the ancient part of the great Islamic cities, beyond which have been constructed the modern quarters of the city. Moreover, Medina has survived in Spain in a certain number of toponyms. The main ones of these are: Medina de las Torres, in the province of Badajoz; Medina del Campo and Medina de Rioseco, in that of Valladolid; Medina de Pomar, in that of Burgos; and also, Medinaceli [see madināt salīm ] and Medina-Sidonia [see s̲h̲ad̲h̲ūna ]. (E. Lévi-Provençal)


(481 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, important town in the Wādī Darʿa (Dra), in the south of Morocco and the site of the mother zāwiya of the religious brotherhood of the Nāṣiriyya [ q.v.]. It is a fair-sized town with houses of red clay, surrounded by groves of palm and fruit trees, on the left bank of the Wādī Darʿa, which is here 120 to 250 feet wide but of no depth and runs between hills about 300 yards apart. Tamgrūt is surrounded by low walls pierced by 4 gates: in the north, Fumm (class, fam “mouth”) al-Sūḳ, in the northeast, Fumm Tāʾurīrt, in the southwest, Bāb al-Ri…


(184 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(“the manufacturer of string from palm-fibre”, s̲h̲rīṭ ), Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAys̲h̲ūn , son of a mud̲j̲āhid , slain in battle which the Spaniards at al-Maʿmūra (al-Mahdiyya = San Miguel de Ultramar) was born at Fās in 1035/1625-6 and died there in 1109/1697 after having adopted Ṣūfism. He is credited with the authorship of a hagiographical collection, but this has sometimes been disputed by his compatriots; this is al-Rawḍ al-ʿāṭir al-anfās bi-ak̲h̲bār al-ṣāliḥīn min ahl Fās . According to al-Kattānī, it was really the work of Muḥa…


(595 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a Berber chief of the Mag̲h̲rib, who rebelled against Arab authority in 122/739-40. He belonged to the tribe of the Maṭg̲h̲āra/Madg̲h̲āra and the historians give him the surname of al-Ḥaḳīr "the low-born" because he was of humble origin and had been before his rebellion a water-seller in the market of al-Ḳayrawān. After the recall of Mūsā b. Nuṣayr [ q.v.] at the end of the 1st/opening of the 8th century in North Africa, under the influence of Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite propaganda, incited by the Arabs’ financial exactions, ʿUmar b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Murādī, governor o…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥammad

(182 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Ibrahīm al-Ṣinhād̲j̲ī al-Fis̲h̲tālī , Moroccan writer, b. 956/1549, d. at Marrākus̲h̲ 1031/1621-2, was head of the chancery ( wazīr al-ḳalam al-aʿlā ) and official ¶ historiographer ( mutawallī taʾrik̲h̲ al-dawla ) of the Saʿdid sultan Aḥmad al-Manṣūr al-Ḏh̲ahabī [ q.v.]. Of his literary and historical works, which were considerable, there survive only lengthy quotations, especially by the chronicler al-Ifrānī [ q.v.] in his Nuzhat al-Ḥādī . Al-Fis̲h̲tālī, who was a contemporary and friend of al-Maḳḳarī [ q.v.], the author of Nafḥ al-Ṭīb , composed ann…
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