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(77 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, now Eloche, a small town in the Spanish Levant ( S̲h̲arḳ al-Andalūs ) 12 m. S-W of Alicante, noted for its palm groves, which still exist to-day, and which were described by Muslim authors such as Ibn Saʿīd and al-Ḳazwīnī. (E. Lévi-Provençal) Bibliography Ibn ʿAbd al-Munʿim al Ḥimyarī, Péninsule ibérique, no. 26, text, 31, trans., 39 H. Pérès, Le palmier en Espagne musulmane, in Mélanges Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Cairo 1938, 225-39 Lévi-Provençal, Hist. Esp. mus., iii, 283-4.

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. ʿAlī b. Yūsuf al-Fāsī

(120 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the most famous representative of the Moroccan family of the Fāsiyyūn, b. in al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr 1077/1599, d. 1091/1680. He was the head of the zāwiya of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya in al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr. He wrote a fahrasa and some books on ḥadīt̲h̲ , but he is best known as one of the main representatives of Moroccan ṣūfism at the beginning of the 17th century. His descendants form today a very numerous and important branch of the religious and scholarly aristocracy of Fez (the inhabitants of the town being called, in order to avoid a confusion with the family of the Fāsiyyūn, ahl Fās ). (E. Lévi-Provenç…

ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. ʿAlī al-Tamīmī al-Marrākus̲h̲ī

(307 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū Muḥammad , Maghribi chronicler from the beginning of the 13th century, b. Marrākus̲h̲ 7 Rabīʿ II 581/8 July 1185. We have no ¶ information about his life except for a few autobiographical data that allow us to some degree to piece together his career. He left, at an early age, his native town for Fez, where he made his studies, but returned several times to the Almohad capital before going to Spain. He stayed in Seville in 605/1208-9 and stopped for two years in Cordova. After a short visit to Marrākus̲h̲ he esta…

Abū Yaʿazzā

(305 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(or Yaʿzā ) Yalannūr b. Maynūn , sprung from a sub-Atlantic Berber tribe (Dukkāla, Hazmīra or Haskūra), famous Moroccan saint of the 6th/12th century. After living for a time at Fez, where his zāwiya in the al-Blīda quarter (a dialect form of al-Bulayda ) is still frequented, he settled in a village of the Middle Atlas, half-way between Rabat and Kaṣabat Tādlā, Tāg̲h̲yā, which is today a small administrative centre bearing the name of the saint, as pronounced now in that region: Mūlāy Būʿazzā. He is said to have bee…

Maʿn b. Muḥammad

(215 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, b. Aḥmad b. Ṣūmādīḥ al-Tud̲j̲ībī , Abu ’l-Aḥwas , founder of a branch of the dynasty of the Tud̲j̲ībids [ q.v.] in the little principality of Alméria [see al-mariyya ] in eastern Spain in the middle of the 5th/11th century. The principality had been founded in ca. 416/1025 by the two ʿĀmirid fatās K̲h̲ayān and Zuhayr. On the latter’s death m 428/1037, their overlord ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Abī ʿĀmir, king of Valencia, declared it his property and in 432 or 433/1041-2, placed his brotherin-law Maʿn b. Ṣūmādiḥ as governor there. The latter belonged to a noble family of Arab origin; his father ¶ had been…

Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī

(2,309 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥ. b. Ayyūb , was, with al-S̲h̲arīf al-Idrīsī [ q.v.], the greatest geographer of the Muslim West, and one of the most characteristic representatives of Arab Andalusian erudition in the 5th/11th century. Although little is known about the details of the life of Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī, it is possible to describe the various aspects of his scientific activity, all of which seems to have taken place in his own country; in fact, he appears never to have travelled in the East, or even North Africa, which he …

ʿAlī b. Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲ufīn

(1,758 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Almoravid amīr and second sovereign of the Tās̲h̲ufīnid dynasty, who ruled over a large part of the Mag̲h̲rib and of southern Spain from 500/1106 to 537/1143. The reign of ʿAlī, who succeeded his father Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲ufīn at the moment when Almoravid power was at its greatest on both sides of the Straits of Gibraltar, was marked by a series of events of which hitherto the main facts were known, but the exact course of which was not always clear, owing to a lack of detailed sources old enough to be reliable. To-day, there is available on the one hand the volume of the Naẓm al-Ḏj̲umān

Ak̲h̲bār Mad̲j̲mūʿa

(222 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, title of a short anonymous chronicle recording the conquest of al-Andalus by the Arabs, the period prior to the foundation of the Marwānid amirate of Cordoba, and the history of the amirate itself up to the reign of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III al-Nāṣir. This text, published on the basis of the unicum of the Bibl. Nat. in Paris, and translated into Spanish by Lafuente y Alcantara (Madrid 1867), has had little documentary ¶ interest since the discovery of the greater part of the Muḳtabis of Ibn Ḥayyān. It is an ill-proportioned and relatively late work, probably c…


(317 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a Spanish Arabic place-name corresponding to the Spanish Segura. This last name is now only applied to the river which waters Murcia and Orihuela and flows into the Mediterranean near Guardamar. In the Muslim geographers, this river is usually called the “white river” ( al-nahr al-abyaḍ ). It rises, like the Guadalquivir, in the range called D̲j̲abal S̲h̲aḳūra, but on the eastern slope. The mountains to which this name was given are of considerable extent. They were, according to the Arab geographers, covered with for…


(1,034 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm, Moroccan statesman and historian of the 18th century. Al-Zayyānī, a member of the great Berber tribe of ¶ the Zayyān in central Morocco, was born in Fās in 1147/1734-5. He received his education in this city. At the age of 23, he accompanied his parents on the Pilgrimage to Mecca and after an exciting journey, coming as well as going, which lasted over two years, he returned to Fās, where he obtained a position as secretary to the mak̲h̲zan [ q.v.] of sultan Muḥammad III b. ʿAbd Allāh. His ability, his knowledge of Berber dialects and the …


(231 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(or S̲h̲antara), Arabie name of the modern Cintra, a little town in Portugal, at a height of 207 m/700 feet above sea-level, 28 km/16 miles to the north-west of Lisbon. It was quite prosperous under Muslim rule, and the Arab geographers remark on the fertility of the country round; its apples were universally famous. Cintra always shared the destinies of its great neighbour Lisbon as long as it was in the hands of the Muslims; it was reconquered in 1147 by Alfonso Henriquez, king of Portugal. Af…


(2,380 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
( Banū ʿAbbād ), dynasty of Arab race which reigned for most of the 5th/11th century over the S.-W. of al-Andalus, with its capital at Seville [cf. is̲h̲bīlya ]. It was at the moment of the disintegration of the Caliphate of Cordova and of the political dismemberment of the country by the petty kings known as the taifas ( mulūk al-ṭawāʾif ) that the ḳāḍī of Seville, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad b. ʿAbbād, succeeded in being proclaimed ruler in 414/1013. The son of a celebrated Spanish-Muslim jurist of Lak̲h̲mid origin, Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbbād, he began, on first seizing …


(142 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Lorca, a town of Eastern Spain lying between Granada and Murcia and having a population at present of 58,600. It is the ancient Iluro or Heliocroca of the Romans. In the Islamic period, it formed part of the kūra of Tudmīr [ q.v.], and was famous both for the richness of its soil and subsoil and for its strategic position. Its ḥiṣn was one of the most substantial in Andalusia. It is situated at 1,200 feet above sea-level on the southern slope of the Sierra del Cáno, and dominates the course of the river Guadalentín. Under Arab rule …


(624 words)

Author(s): Lévi Provençal, E.
(a., pl. arbāḍ ), district or quarter of a town situated outside the central part or madīna [ q.v.]. This term, which is very frequently found in mediaeval Islamic historical texts of both the Occident and Orient, lies at the origin of the Spanish word ar-rabal, which has the same meaning. In the strongholds ( ḥiṣn or ṣak̲h̲ra ) of Muslim Spain, the name rabaḍ was given to the civil quarter situated below the strictly ¶ military quarter; it was also applied to the quarters of the lepers and of prostitutes, whilst amongst the Spanish Christians, it designated a parish. These quarters of a town …


(99 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, from Arabic madīna "town", is used in French ( médina ) to designate, above all in the Mag̲h̲rib, the ancient part of the great Islamic cities, beyond which have been constructed the modern quarters of the city. Moreover, Medina has survived in Spain in a certain number of toponyms. The main ones of these are: Medina de las Torres, in the province of Badajoz; Medina del Campo and Medina de Rioseco, in that of Valladolid; Medina de Pomar, in that of Burgos; and also, Medinaceli [see madināt salīm ] and Medina-Sidonia [see s̲h̲ad̲h̲ūna ]. (E. Lévi-Provençal)


(481 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, important town in the Wādī Darʿa (Dra), in the south of Morocco and the site of the mother zāwiya of the religious brotherhood of the Nāṣiriyya [ q.v.]. It is a fair-sized town with houses of red clay, surrounded by groves of palm and fruit trees, on the left bank of the Wādī Darʿa, which is here 120 to 250 feet wide but of no depth and runs between hills about 300 yards apart. Tamgrūt is surrounded by low walls pierced by 4 gates: in the north, Fumm (class, fam “mouth”) al-Sūḳ, in the northeast, Fumm Tāʾurīrt, in the southwest, Bāb al-Ri…


(184 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(“the manufacturer of string from palm-fibre”, s̲h̲rīṭ ), Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAys̲h̲ūn , son of a mud̲j̲āhid , slain in battle which the Spaniards at al-Maʿmūra (al-Mahdiyya = San Miguel de Ultramar) was born at Fās in 1035/1625-6 and died there in 1109/1697 after having adopted Ṣūfism. He is credited with the authorship of a hagiographical collection, but this has sometimes been disputed by his compatriots; this is al-Rawḍ al-ʿāṭir al-anfās bi-ak̲h̲bār al-ṣāliḥīn min ahl Fās . According to al-Kattānī, it was really the work of Muḥa…


(595 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a Berber chief of the Mag̲h̲rib, who rebelled against Arab authority in 122/739-40. He belonged to the tribe of the Maṭg̲h̲āra/Madg̲h̲āra and the historians give him the surname of al-Ḥaḳīr "the low-born" because he was of humble origin and had been before his rebellion a water-seller in the market of al-Ḳayrawān. After the recall of Mūsā b. Nuṣayr [ q.v.] at the end of the 1st/opening of the 8th century in North Africa, under the influence of Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite propaganda, incited by the Arabs’ financial exactions, ʿUmar b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Murādī, governor o…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥammad

(182 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Ibrahīm al-Ṣinhād̲j̲ī al-Fis̲h̲tālī , Moroccan writer, b. 956/1549, d. at Marrākus̲h̲ 1031/1621-2, was head of the chancery ( wazīr al-ḳalam al-aʿlā ) and official ¶ historiographer ( mutawallī taʾrik̲h̲ al-dawla ) of the Saʿdid sultan Aḥmad al-Manṣūr al-Ḏh̲ahabī [ q.v.]. Of his literary and historical works, which were considerable, there survive only lengthy quotations, especially by the chronicler al-Ifrānī [ q.v.] in his Nuzhat al-Ḥādī . Al-Fis̲h̲tālī, who was a contemporary and friend of al-Maḳḳarī [ q.v.], the author of Nafḥ al-Ṭīb , composed ann…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Mūsā b. Nuṣayr

(231 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, first governor of al-Andalus, after the departure to the East of his father Mūsā b. Nuṣayr, the famous conqueror of the Iberian peninsula, in 95/714. Mūsā, on leaving, gave him instructions to pur…
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