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(868 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, aḥmad b. muḥammad b. ʿumar al-k̲h̲afād̲j̲ī , called S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn al-Miṣrī al-Ḥanafī, was born near Cairo in ca. 979/1571 and received his earliest education from an uncle on his mother’s side, Abu Bakr al-S̲h̲anawānī. whom he himself calls the Sībawayh of his age, and under him he studied both Ḥanafī and S̲h̲āfīʿī law; the biography of the Prophet entitled al-S̲h̲ifāʾ by the Ḳāḍī ʿIyād [ q.v.] he read under Ibrāhīm al-Alḳamī, and he even studied medicine under Dāwūd al-Baṣīr. Later he made the pilgrimage in the company of his father and took the opportuni…

Saʿd b. Zayd Manāt al-Fizr

(768 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
is the name by which a large section of the tribe of Tamīm is named. The curious cognomen Fizr or (according to al-Aṣmaʿī, Fazr ) has received no satisfactory explanation, and the philologist Abū Manṣūr al-Azharī asserts that he never met any person who could explain it. Some lexicographers explain it as meaning "more than one", others as "goats", but we may assume that Ibn Durayd is correct when he derives it from the verb fazara with the meaning "to split" and that fizr means “a chip or fragment”. The Arab genealogists give the name of the common ancest…


(1,263 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
b. ʿAmr, name of a South-Arabian tribe, a branch of the large tribe of Azd. The genealogists with few exceptions are unanimous in tracing their pedigree through ʿAmr, surnamed Luḥaiy, b. Rabīʿa b. Ḥārit̲h̲a b. Muzaikiya and they agree further that they, together with the other branches of the Azd, left South Arabia at a remote time and wandered with them to the North. When they reached the territory of Mekka, most of their kinsmen continued their journey, the G̲h̲assān to Syria, Azd S̲h̲anūʿa to ʿOmān, but Luḥaiy remained with his clan near Mekka and thus separated ( ink̲h̲azaʿa) from the re…


(978 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, also called Kindat al-Mulūk (the royal Kinda) was a South-Arabian tribe which, probably not numerous, was settled at the lime preceding the rise of Islām in the country to the West of Ḥaḍramawt. The Arabian genealogists know their descent, but as usual with all South-Arabian tribes it is altogether imaginary. The line of descent is traced as follows: T̲h̲awr (i. e. Kinda) b. ʿUfair b. ʿAdī b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Murra b. Udad b. Zaid b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ub b. Zaid b. ʿArīb b. Zaid b. Kahlān b. Sabaʾ. They…

Saʿd al-Fizr

(710 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
is the name by which a large section of the tribe of Tamīm is named. The curious name Fizr has received no satisfactory explanation and the philologist Abū Manṣūr al-Azharī asserts that he never met any person who could explain it. Some lexicographers explain it as meaning “more than one”, others as “goats”, but we may assume that Ibn Duraid is correct when he derives it from the verb “ fazara” with the meaning “to split” and that “ fizr” means “a chip” or “fragment”. The Arab genealogists give the name of the common ancestor as Saʿd b. Zaid Manāt b. Tamīm and relate tales…

Salāma b. Ḏj̲andal

(783 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, a poet of pre-islamic times, was a member of the clan al-Ḥārit̲h̲., which belonged to the large division Saʿd al-Fizr of the tribe Tamīm. He is numbered among the excellent poets of the Ḏj̲āhilīya of whom only few poems are preserved. He must have flourished during the second half of the sixth century of our era, as the most prominent event in his life recorded is about his brother Aḥmar (sometimes misspelled Aḥmad). When ʿAmr b. Kult̲h̲ūm, the chief of the tribe of Tag̲h̲lib, made his raid south, Aḥmar was made a prisoner by ʿAmr, but released without ransom upon the petition of Salāma ( Dīwān of…


(893 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, not infrequently also Ḳaṣīd, is the name given to a form of Arabic (also Persian, Turkish etc.) poem of some length. The name is derived from the Arabic root ḳaṣada with the meaning “to aim”, because in the earlier times it contained the praise of the poet’s tribe and attacks upon its adversaries, later the praise of a person or family by a poet who expects and openly asks for presents for his eulogies. From the earliest times the elegy ( mart̲h̲iya) does not appear to be included under the same designation, but poems of insult ( hid̲j̲āʾ) are frequently by older poets called a ḳaṣīda, tho…

al-S̲h̲arīf al-Raḍī

(1,170 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan Muḥammad b. Abī Ṭāhir al-Ḥusain b. Mūsā descended from al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī through Mūsā al-Kāẓim on account of which he and his brother ʿAlī al-Murtaḍā [q. v.] were given the family name al-Musāwī. His father who was born in the year 307 (919/920) was under Būyid rule in Bag̲h̲dād Naḳīb of the Ṭālibīs, an office resembling that of a heralds’-college for the descendants of the Prophet through ʿAlī’s wife Fāṭima. al-Raḍī was born in Bag̲h̲dād in the year 359 (970) and appears to have been very precocious; we are told by T̲h̲aʿālibī, hi…


(602 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
There are two tribes of this name, one South Arabian and a branch of Ḵh̲uzāʿa, the other North Arabian and reckoned to the federation of tribes known by the collective name of Hawāzin. Both tribes appear to have been in little estimation and I am in doubt whether the two are not really identical as some members are at times reckoned either to Ḵh̲uzāʿa or Hawāzik. 1) The branch of Ḵh̲uzāʿa had immigrated into the Ḥid̲j̲āz at an early date, Arab genealogists giving the time as after the break of the dam at Maʾrib, and became custodians of the Kaʿba. A member of …


(840 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
b. Ḵh̲uzaima b. Mudrika b. al-Yās b. Muḍar is the name of a large Arab tribe which had its camping grounds at the beginning of Islām in the territory round Mekka, extending from the Tihāma in the South-west of the city, where they bordered on the lands occupied by the related tribe of Hud̲h̲ail, to the North-east of the city where their grounds adjoined those occupied by their nearest relations the tribe of Asad of Ḵh̲uzaima. They were very numerous and their chief ¶ importance in the eyes of native genealogists lies in the fact that the Ḳurais̲h̲, and consequently the Prophet…


(902 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, writer or scribe, is probably derived from the word kitāb (book) and from both was later formed the verb kataba (he wrote). The word was perhaps imported with the art from the Northern Aramaic neighbours of the Arabs. We not only find the word in the earliest poetry preserved, applied to those who wrote the Arabic script but also ancient poets speak of Ḥimyarī kātibs. In the time before Islām the art of writing, though apparently practised in all parts of Arabia, was the accomplishment of the few, and Ibn Saʿd in his Ṭabaḳāt makes a point of mentioning each time when he states that a c…


(649 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
is the name given to a peculiar mode of rhetoric in which at short intervals words occur which rhyme, though it is distinguished from poetry ( S̲h̲iʿr) by not being bound by a regular rhythm or metre. Probably this was the earliest mode of elevated expression practised by the Arabs before the development of the regular metres. There is ample evidence that it was this mode of expression practised by the Kahins [q. v.] of the times of Paganism for their oracles, though the examples cited in the Sīra of Ibn His̲h̲ām and in …


(740 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, Nūr al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad, a descendant of al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī, according to the genealogy traced by Ibn l’ahd, was born in Samhūd in Upper Egypt (al-Ṣaʿīd) in the month of Ṣafar, 844 a. h., where his father was a noted lawyer. The latter took him for the first time to Cairo in the year 853, but he visited the city later on several occasions both alone and in the company of his father to enable him to pursue his studies under the most renowned men of his time, and the Ṣūfī saint al-ʿIrāḳī invested him with the…


(1,582 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, a subdivision of the Hawāzin tribe of ʿUḳail which remained as powerful Bedouins longer than most of the other tribes which inhabited the Arabian peninsula at the dawn of Islām. The genealogists give their affiliation to their kindred clans as Ḵh̲afād̲j̲a b. ʿAmr b. ʿUḳail, and they were subdivided into eleven branches: Muʿāwiya Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳarḥ, Kaʿb Ḏh̲u ’l-Nuwaira, al-Aḳraʿ, Kaʿb al-ʿAṣg̲h̲ar, ʿĀmir, Mālik, al-Hait̲h̲am, al-Wāziʿ,ʿAmr, Ḥazn and Ḵh̲ālid. They had their territory in the time befo…


(893 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, Abū ʿAmr Isḥāḳ b. Mirār, who, according to Abū Manṣūr al-Azharī, had the nickname al-Aḥwaṣ, was descended from Persian country gentry, but being a client ( mawlā) of some person of the tribe of S̲h̲aibān was called al-S̲h̲aibānī. He was the foremost ofthe Kūfī grammarians. We are told that he was called al-S̲h̲aibānī because he was instructor to those sons of the caliph Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd who were under the care of Yazīd b. Mazyad al-S̲h̲aibānī. The date of his birth can only be ascertained approximately, but if the age …


(1,679 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
b. ʿAbd al-Bakrī is unanimously considered by Arab critics one of the foremost poets of the period before Islām and is the author of the longest of the poems known by the name of Muʿallaḳāt. He is at the same time one of the earliest poets of that period of whom poems are preserved. The editors of the Muʿallaḳa and of his collected poems generally give a full genealogy from which however we can gain with certainty only that he belonged to the section of Bakr of the Wāʾil tribes His father’s name is given as al-ʿAbd b. Sufyān, the name ʿAbd being probab…


(2,138 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Hilāl b. Ibrāhīm b. Zahrūn al-Ḥarrānī was an adherent of the sect of Sābiʾans [see the art. ṣābiʾa] and was born on the 5th of Ramaḍān, 313 a.h., according to the most trustworthy authority, his grandson Hilāl, while the Fihrist gives the year 320, which is certainly too late a date. His father Hilāl was a skilful doctor and in the service of Tūzūn, who died in 324 a. h. Ibrāhīm was brought up to the same sciences as other members of his family, who were all skilled in medicine, astronomy and mathematics. He is stated to have made an astrolabe o…


(1,205 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
is the name of the tribe who with their brother-tribe al-Aws were occupying the region of al-Madīna and farther north to Ḵh̲aibar and Taimāʾ at the time of the beginning of Islām. On account of the important part which they played in the successful rise of Islām both tribes are designated by the honorific name of al-Anṣār “the Helpers”. It is the unanimous statement of genealogists and Arab antiquarians that the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲, together with the Aws and the G̲h̲assānids in Syria, migrated from South-Arabia at a very early date and as the reason for thei…


(550 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
b. Rabīʿa, an Arabie tribe which was one of the principal branches of the large tribe of ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa. Their original homes were in the Ḥima Ḍarrīya which corresponds roughly to the country North and South of the present Wahhābi capital al-Riyāḍ. This district was considered one of the best in Central Arabia and we are told that the Kilāb occupied nine tenths of it. At a much later time than the rise of Islām they wandered North into the confines of Syria where they gained possession of the t…


(1,216 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, Abū ʿĀmr ʿĀmir b. S̲h̲arāḥīl b. ʿAmr al-S̲h̲aʿbī, traditionist, was one of the many South-Arabians who gained prominence in the early days of Islām. He was descended from the clan S̲h̲aʿb, which is a branch of the large tribe of Hamdān, and was born in al-Kūfa, where his father S̲h̲arāhīl was one of the foremost of the ḳurrāʾ or Ḳurʾān readers. There is a great divergence in the dates assigned as the year of his birth, but we may assume that the date which he himself gives is approximately correct. He stated that he was born in the year of the battle…
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