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Saʿd b. Zayd Manāt al-Fizr

(768 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
is the name by which a large section of the tribe of Tamīm is named. The curious cognomen Fizr or (according to al-Aṣmaʿī, Fazr ) has received no satisfactory explanation, and the philologist Abū Manṣūr al-Azharī asserts that he never met any person who could explain it. Some lexicographers explain it as meaning "more than one", others as "goats", but we may assume that Ibn Durayd is correct when he derives it from the verb fazara with the meaning "to split" and that fizr means “a chip or fragment”. The Arab genealogists give the name of the common ancest…

Salūl

(602 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
There are two tribes of this name, one South Arabian and a branch of Ḵh̲uzāʿa, the other North Arabian and reckoned to the federation of tribes known by the collective name of Hawāzin. Both tribes appear to have been in little estimation and I am in doubt whether the two are not really identical as some members are at times reckoned either to Ḵh̲uzāʿa or Hawāzik. 1) The branch of Ḵh̲uzāʿa had immigrated into the Ḥid̲j̲āz at an early date, Arab genealogists giving the time as after the break of the dam at Maʾrib, and became custodians of the Kaʿba. A member of …

Kināna

(840 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
b. Ḵh̲uzaima b. Mudrika b. al-Yās b. Muḍar is the name of a large Arab tribe which had its camping grounds at the beginning of Islām in the territory round Mekka, extending from the Tihāma in the South-west of the city, where they bordered on the lands occupied by the related tribe of Hud̲h̲ail, to the North-east of the city where their grounds adjoined those occupied by their nearest relations the tribe of Asad of Ḵh̲uzaima. They were very numerous and their chief ¶ importance in the eyes of native genealogists lies in the fact that the Ḳurais̲h̲, and consequently the Prophet…

Kātib

(902 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, writer or scribe, is probably derived from the word kitāb (book) and from both was later formed the verb kataba (he wrote). The word was perhaps imported with the art from the Northern Aramaic neighbours of the Arabs. We not only find the word in the earliest poetry preserved, applied to those who wrote the Arabic script but also ancient poets speak of Ḥimyarī kātibs. In the time before Islām the art of writing, though apparently practised in all parts of Arabia, was the accomplishment of the few, and Ibn Saʿd in his Ṭabaḳāt makes a point of mentioning each time when he states that a c…

Sad̲j̲ʿ

(649 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
is the name given to a peculiar mode of rhetoric in which at short intervals words occur which rhyme, though it is distinguished from poetry ( S̲h̲iʿr) by not being bound by a regular rhythm or metre. Probably this was the earliest mode of elevated expression practised by the Arabs before the development of the regular metres. There is ample evidence that it was this mode of expression practised by the Kahins [q. v.] of the times of Paganism for their oracles, though the examples cited in the Sīra of Ibn His̲h̲ām and in …

al-Samhūdī

(740 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, Nūr al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad, a descendant of al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī, according to the genealogy traced by Ibn l’ahd, was born in Samhūd in Upper Egypt (al-Ṣaʿīd) in the month of Ṣafar, 844 a. h., where his father was a noted lawyer. The latter took him for the first time to Cairo in the year 853, but he visited the city later on several occasions both alone and in the company of his father to enable him to pursue his studies under the most renowned men of his time, and the Ṣūfī saint al-ʿIrāḳī invested him with the…

al-K̲h̲afād̲j̲ī

(868 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, aḥmad b. muḥammad b. ʿumar al-k̲h̲afād̲j̲ī , called S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn al-Miṣrī al-Ḥanafī, was born near Cairo in ca. 979/1571 and received his earliest education from an uncle on his mother’s side, Abu Bakr al-S̲h̲anawānī. whom he himself calls the Sībawayh of his age, and under him he studied both Ḥanafī and S̲h̲āfīʿī law; the biography of the Prophet entitled al-S̲h̲ifāʾ by the Ḳāḍī ʿIyād [ q.v.] he read under Ibrāhīm al-Alḳamī, and he even studied medicine under Dāwūd al-Baṣīr. Later he made the pilgrimage in the company of his father and took the opportuni…

Salīḥ

(528 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
Arab historians and genealogists are unanimous in stating that the tribe or clan Salīḥ were the first Arabs who founded a kingdom in Syria, though the three princes mentioned by them appear not to be named on inscriptions or by Greek and Syrian authors. There is also doubt as regards their affiliation with other tribes; some reckon them to G̲h̲assān, while others say they were a branch of Ḳuḍāʿa. Their first ruler is named al-Nuʿmān b. ʿAmr b. Mālik who was succeeded by his son Mālik after whom followed the latter’s ¶ son ʿAmr, the last of his line. This much seems certain that they w…

Ṣanam

(993 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
(a., plur. aṣnām) is explained in the dictionaries and the commentaries of the Ḳurʾān as meaning “an object which is worshipped besides God”, and it is as a rule distinguished from the word wat̲h̲an (plur. awt̲h̲ān) as being a thing having shape and made of stone, wood or metal, while the latter is almost synonymous with “picture or painting”. This is also the explanation given by Ibn al-Kalbī in his Kitāb al-Aṣnām. The Arabic dictionaries state further that it is a word of foreign origin, derived from the word s̲h̲anam, but do not know the language from which it is borrowed. Accord…

Pākistān

(511 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
means the land of the Pāks. The word Pāk — pure, clean — is not adequately translatable into English It stands for all that is noble and sacred in life for a Muslim. The name Pākistān, which has come to be applied — though not officially — to the five Muslim Provinces in the North-West of the present-day India, is composed of letters taken from the names of its components Pand̲j̲āb, North-West Frontier (of which the inhabitants are mainly Afg̲h̲ān). Kas̲h̲mīr, Sindh, and Balūčistān. These territories we…

Ṭaḥāwī

(1,538 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Salāma b. ʿAbd al-Malik al-Azdī al-Ṭaḥāwī al-Had̲j̲rī. His nisba Ṭaḥāwī is derived from the name of a village in Upper Egypt named Ṭaḥā. He is considered the greatest Ḥanafī lawyer which Egypt has produced. His ancestors had settled in Upper Egypt and his grandfather Salāma when the news of the rebellion ¶ of Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī reached Egypt threw off, with others, the allegiance to the caliph al-Maʾmūn. The rebels appointed ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Azdī in place of al-Sarī b. al-Ḥakam, who fled at first, …

K̲h̲aṭṭ

(545 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, pl Ḵh̲uṭūṭ (the poet al-ʿAd̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ also uses the form ak̲h̲ṭaṭ), meant originally a straight furrow or line dug into the ground or a line drawn in the sand by a stick or with the finger. The word is frequently used for the digging of a grave, because the latter was long and straight. Then it was used for the meaning of laying out a settlement with lanes or streets ( k̲h̲iṭṭa). Finally it has the meaning of a line ruled on paper or parchment, and a line of writing. ¶ This latter meaning is probably derived from the earlier meaning of the lines which a diviner ( ḥāzī) drew in sand and from which …

al-S̲h̲anfarā

(1,222 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
was a poet of the time before Islām and is reckoned by the Arabs as one of the great racers, along with others like Taʾabbaṭa S̲h̲arran, and also as one of the ravens ( ag̲h̲riba) on account of his black skin. The genealogists know his complete genealogy, but as the various sources consulted are not even unanimous as to his name and that of his immediate ancestors, it is hazardous to attach great credence to the chain of his forebears named. There is, however, perfect agreement that he belonged to ¶ the South-Arabian clan of the Banu ’l-Iwās b. al-Ḥid̲j̲r b. al-Hanw b. al-Azd and con…

Ruʾba b. al-ʿAd̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲

(1,064 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
al-Tamīmī, Arab poet. The name of Ruʾba is found more frequently among persons of Eastern Arabia, the part of the country most under Persian influence, than is generally supposed. Philologers give many explanations of the strange name, but I am convinced that it is the Arabic version of the Persian word rūbāh meaning “fox”. Al-Āmidī in his Kitāb al-Muʾtalif wa ’l-Muk̲h̲talif (p. 121—122) mentions three poets of this name, but only Ruʾba b. al-ʿAd̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ of the clan of the Banū Mālik b. Saʿd Zaid Manāt b. Tamīm attained any celebrity as a poet of rad̲j̲az, in which class of poetry he…

al-S̲h̲āṭibī

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, Abū Muḥammad al-Ḳāsim b. Farruḥ b. Ḵh̲alaf b. Aḥmad al-Ruʿainī, generally called Abu ’l-Ḳāsim al-S̲h̲āṭibī, was born towards the end of the year 538 a. h. (1144 a. d.) in Xativa (S̲h̲āṭiba; q. v.). In his native town he studied under Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Nafazī, known as Ibn al-Lāyuh (Leo) and according to Ibn Ḵh̲allikān he was actually preacher in the mosque of his native town in spite of his youth. Later he removed to Valencia, where he studied under Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Hud̲h̲ail a…

Zuhair b. Abī Sulmā

(1,430 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
Rabīʿa b. Rabāḥ b. ḳurra al-Muzanī (the genealogy in Ibn Ḳutaiba is wrong, as it is frequently the case) was a n Arabic poet of the time before Islām and by native critics considered, together with Imruʾ al-Ḳais and al-Nābig̲h̲a, as one of the three great poets of antiquity. Though he was of the tribe of Muzaina, he was born among the tribe of ʿAbd Allāh b. G̲h̲aṭafān and spent the whole of his life among them. His father Rabīʿa had married a sister of a certain Kaʿb b. Asʿad of the clan of Murra b. …

al-Ṭirimmāḥ

(574 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
b. Ḥakīm al-Ṭāʾī, a celebrated poet of the first century of Islām. He was descended from a highly respected clan of his tribe and his grandfather Ḳais is numbered among those who came to Mecca in the year 9 of the Hid̲j̲ra to pay homage to the Prophet. He himself, according to the most reliable accounts, was born in Syria and spent the earliest years of his life there. Later he came as a soldier to al-Kūfa and through the influence of some Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ī leaders became himself one of their sect, and…

al-Ṭug̲h̲rāʾī

(1,038 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
Muʾaiyid al-Dīn Fak̲h̲r al-Kuttāb Abū Ismāʿīl al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Ṣamad al-Iṣfahānī, better known by the name of Ṭug̲h̲rāʾī (so named after the scroll, consisting of the name of the sovereign and his titles, written at the top of official documents above the Basmala), Arab poet, was born in 453 (1061) probably in Iṣfahān. His early career is imperfectly known, but he appears to have first been engaged as secretary in Irbil. Then he entered the chancellory of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭāns and serv…

Tilimsānī

(992 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
Many Arabic scholars are known by this nisba, but generally the three following are meant when mentioned in books of adab: 1. ʿAfīf al-Dīn Sulaimān b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī b. Yāsīn claimed to be descended from a family which originally came from al-Kūfa (Ḏh̲ahabī in MS. Or. 53 reads however Kūmī al-Aṣl) and was born at Tlimsān (?) in 616(1219) according to his own statement. He came early to Syria where he occasionally filled official positions, but was also frequently out of employment. He claimed that in Asia Minor (Rūm) he had as a Ṣūfī gone forty times into seclusion ( k̲h̲alwa), each ti…

K̲h̲afād̲j̲a

(1,582 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F.
, a subdivision of the Hawāzin tribe of ʿUḳail which remained as powerful Bedouins longer than most of the other tribes which inhabited the Arabian peninsula at the dawn of Islām. The genealogists give their affiliation to their kindred clans as Ḵh̲afād̲j̲a b. ʿAmr b. ʿUḳail, and they were subdivided into eleven branches: Muʿāwiya Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳarḥ, Kaʿb Ḏh̲u ’l-Nuwaira, al-Aḳraʿ, Kaʿb al-ʿAṣg̲h̲ar, ʿĀmir, Mālik, al-Hait̲h̲am, al-Wāziʿ,ʿAmr, Ḥazn and Ḵh̲ālid. They had their territory in the time befo…
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