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K̲h̲usraw Pas̲h̲a

(2,289 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of two Turkish grandviziers. 1. The Bosnian Ḵh̲usraw Pas̲h̲a, grandvizier under Murād IV. Brought up in the imperial palace, he held the offices of Siliḥdār and of Ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries (from 1033/1624) and later in Rad̲j̲ab 1036 (March—April 1627) he received the rank of Wezīr-i Ḳubbe-nis̲h̲in. In November 1627 after the failure of the grand vizier Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] to subdue the rebel Abāza Pas̲h̲a at Erzerūm, a council called by the Sulṭān decided, on the proposal of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām Yaḥyā Efendi, to depose Ḵh̲al…

Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a Bairaḳdār

(699 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish grand vizier in 1808, was the son of a wealthy Janissary at Rusčuḳ, born about 1750. He distinguished himself in the war with Russia under Muṣṭafā III, and acquired in these years the surname of bairaḳdār. After the war he lived on his estates near Rusčuḳ, and acquired the semiofficial position of aʿyān of Hezārgrād and later of Rusčuḳ. With other aʿyāns he took part in an action against the government at Adrianople, but became finally a reliable supporter of the government. ¶ Having already received the honorary offices of ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ and of mīr ak̲h̲or, he was, in 1806,…


(534 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, small village in Lydia in Asia Minor, the ancient Sardes (αἱ ΣάρδειΣ of the classical authors, which makes Sāmī write Sārd), capital of the Lydian Kingdom, situated on the eastern bank of the Ṣart Čai (Pactolus) a little southward to the spot where this river joins the Gedīz Čai (Hermus). Although in the later Byzantine period Sardes had lost much of its former importance (as a metropolitan see) and been outflanked by Magnesia (Turkish Mag̲h̲nīsā) and Philadelphia (Ālā S̲h̲ehr, q. v.), it still was one of the larger towns, when the Seld̲juḳ Turks, in the xith century, made incursions int…

Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a

(678 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Viceroy (Ḵh̲edive) of Egypt from 1854 to 1863. Muḥammad Saʿīd, youngest son of Muḥammad ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā, was born in 1822. His father had a very high opinion of this, his fourth, son whom he sent when only 19 to Constantinople to conduct negotiations regarding the tribute to be paid by Egypt. Saʿīd, who was francophil, was not on good terms with his nephew and predecessor, ʿAbbās I [q.v.]. The latter had done everything possible to induce the Porte to alter the law of succession formulated by the Sulṭān’s firmān in favour of Muḥammad ʿAlī and to s…

Muẓaffar al-Dīn

(644 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, fifth S̲h̲āh of Persia of the Ḳād̲j̲ār [q. v.] dynasty, was born on March 25, 1853. He was S̲h̲āh Nāṣir al-Dīn’s second son, the eldest son Ẓill al-Sulṭān being of lower birth by his mother. As crown prince Muẓaffar al-Dīn had been some time governor of Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān (a description of him as crown prince in Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question, i. 413). After his father’s assassination Muẓaffar al-Dīn was enthroned on June 8, 1896. With this new reign the rivalry between England and Russia for commercial and political influence in Persia became ev…


(2,962 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or rather tanhẓīmāt-i k̲h̲airīye (“beneficent legislation” from the expression: ḳānūn tanẓīm etmek = “to draft a law”) is the term used to denote the reforms introduced into the government and administration of the Ottoman empire from the beginning of the reign of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd and inaugurated by the charter generally called the k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf of Gülk̲h̲āne. The expression tanẓīmāt k̲h̲airīye is first found in the latter years of the reign of Maḥmūd II. The other end of the period of the tanẓīmāt is put about 1880, when the absolute rule of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II began. The tanẓīmā…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Tiryākī

(293 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Maḥmūd I, was born about 1680 at Constantinople. His father was a Janissary. He began his career as a scribe and rose to important posts; in 1739 he played a role in the peace negotiations at Belgrad with Austria. He had been k i aya of the grand vizierate, viz. minister of the interior, when the sulṭān, under influence of his new ḳi̊zlar ag̲h̲asi̊, the so-called Bes̲h̲īr the Younger, dismissed his predecessor Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a and called him to the grand vizierate (August 1746). The twelve months of his period of office were not filled with wa…


(1,442 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
or S̲h̲ūs̲h̲ter, among the Arabs Tustar, a town in the Persian province of ʿArabistān, the ancient Ḵh̲ūzistān, situated in ¶ about 49° East Long, and 32° N. Lat. It stands on a clif to the west of which runs the river Kārūn [q. v.], the middle course of which begins a few miles north of the town. This position gives the town considerable commercial and strategic importance and has made possible the construction of various waterworks for which the town has long been famous. The main features of these constructions …

Sulaimān II

(746 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twentieth Ottoman Sulṭān, reigned from 1687 to 1691. He was born in 1052 (1642) (on 15th Muḥarram = April 15, according to von Hammer, G. O. R., the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī gives the 25th Ṣafar = May 25), and was the son of Sulṭān Ibrāhīm; from the accession of his brother Muḥammad IV he lived the life of a prisoner in the palace with his brother Aḥmad. On the deposition of Muḥammad IV, the result of the defeat of the Turkish army at Mohács, Sulaimān was placed on the throne on Nov. 8, 1637, mainly through the efforts of the ḳāʾim-maḳām Köprülü Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a. In the precarious position of t…


(151 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the Turkish word for black or dark colour in general. It is commonly used with this meaning as the first component of geographical names, for example Ḳara Āmīd (on account of the black basalt of which this fortress is built), Ḳara Dag̲h̲ (on account of its dark forests), etc. Beside Ḳara we find in place-names the form Karad̲j̲a. In personal names it refers to the black or dark brown colour of hair or to a dark complexion. It has, however, at the same time also the meaning “strong, powerful” and has ¶ to be interpreted in this sense in the name Ḳara Osmān or in names like Ḳara Arslān…

Ḳara Arslān

(877 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
ibn dāʾūd with the laḳab fak̲h̲r al-dīn, third Amīr of the line of the Ortoḳids [q. v.] of Ḥiṣn Kaifā and great-grandson of the founder of this dynasty. Statements differ regarding the year in which he succeeded his father Dāʾūd b. Suḳmān. According to Abū ’l-Farad̲j̲ Barhebraeus ( Chronicon, ed. Bedjan, Paris 1890, p. 305), Dāʾūd died in the Greek year 1455 (1143—44). The Arabic sources do not give the year; in any case Stanley Lane-Poole, who bases his view that Dāʾūd did not die till about 543 (1148) on a mistaken interpretation of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr ( Kāmil, xi. 73) ( Coins of the Urtuḳí Turkománs


(300 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a Turkish poet of the second half of the xvith century. His proper name was Muḥammad Bey and he was a descendant of Āyās Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] who was Grand Wazīr under Suleimān I. His life was not eventful; according to Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī he was mutafarriḳa and sand̲j̲āḳ-bey. Ḵh̲āḳānī owes his fame to a not very long māt̲h̲namī called Ḥilya-i S̲h̲arīfa, written in a tripodic ramal-metre. This poem is a paraphrase of an Arabic text known as al-Ḥilya al-Nabawīya containing a traditional account of the prophet’s personal appearance; each of the enumerated features is comment…


(321 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or, according to Abu ’l-Fidāʾ (p. 116), Minf, the ancient Egyptian capital Memphis, on the left bank of the Nile, not far from Cairo, is well known in Arabic literature as a very old town. The geographers cite, among the kūra’s of Egypt, that of Manf and Wasīm (cf. e.g. Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲bih, p. 81), but the town was already ruined in Muḥammadan times (al-Yaʿḳūbī, Kit. al-Buldān, p. 331) —by ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ, according to Abu ’l-Fidāʾ ( loc. cit.) — and was no more than a village in the time of Ibn Ḥawḳal (p. 106). Most Arab writers speak of the ancient traditions connected with Manf, often t…

Ḳara Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊

(630 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, leader of a serious rebellion in Asia Minor from 1599 to 1602. His proper name was ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm and he was chief of the corporation of Segbāns ( Segbān bölük bas̲h̲i̊). His followers consisted of Kurds, Turkomans and a large body of soldiers who had fled from the army in Hungary, chiefly on account of the Grand Vizier Čig̲h̲āla’s harsh and cruel treatment of them. They are therefore called Firārīs; another name is Ḏj̲alālīs; their rebellion is known as the Ḵh̲urūd̲j̲-i d̲j̲alāliyān. Ḳara Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊’s first act was the occupation of Ruhā or Urfa (= Edessa) in 1008 a. h. The former Beglerbe…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Rūm

(586 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, vizier and, according to some sources, grand vizier under Sulṭān Muḥammad II. As his surname indicates he was a Greek renegade. After having had an education in the palace he was destined for a military career and became at one time beylerbey. The dates of his birth and of his military advancements are not recorded. He had taken part in the final campaign of Muḥammad II against Ḳaramān in 1466 and was charged by the sulṭān with the transfer of parts of the population of the conquered regions to Constantinople, instead of the grand viz…


(151 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the word used in western Turkish for village. It is the form in which Turkish has borrowed the Persian gūy (cf. Bittner, Der Einfluss des Arabischen und Persischen auf das Türkische, S.B. Ak. Wien, cxlii., N°. 3, p. 103) or perhaps more correctly kūy (Vullers, Lexicon; Burhān-i Ḳātiʿ; p. 759) meaning originally path, street. In the geographical nomenclature of the Ottoman empire we find many place-names compounded with kiöy, like Bog̲h̲āz Kiöy, Ermeni Kiöy, etc. It seems that these names are not found before the end of the Seld̲j̲ūḳ period. Kiöy in the sense of an open village is opposed to ḳa…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a

(1,616 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, name of three Turkish Grand Viziers. 1) Čendereli Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a in the reign of Murād II, vide čendereli. 2) Ḳaiṣarīyeli Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a, Grand Vizier under Aḥmad I and Murād IV. He was an Armenian by birth, born in a village called Ruswān in the neighbourhood of Ḳaiṣarīya (Münad̲j̲d̲j̲im Bas̲h̲i̊; the statement of the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, ii. 286, that he came from Marʿas̲h̲ is incorrect). The date of his birth is not given but must be about 1560. Having been educated at court as Ič Og̲h̲lan, he entered the corps of the falconers and became dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊, in which capacit…

Muḥammad Damad Pas̲h̲a

(489 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grandvizier, also called Öküz Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, was the son of a farrier of Constantinople and was educated (rather unusual at that time for a boy from Constantinople) in the imperial palace for a military career. He left the palace as siliḥdār, but we do no not know his career until he was appointed, in 1016 (1607—1608), governor of Egypt. Here he was successful in the energetic suppression of a Mamlūk revolt and when he returned in 1610 to the capital with two years’ tribute, he was appointed Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a, being at the same time…


(959 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, name of several princes belonging to the Ottoman dynasty: 1. Muṣṭafā Čelebi, eldest son of Bāyazīd I; the date of his birth is not recorded. He disappeared in the battle of Angora (July 1402). This Muṣṭafā is the first Ottoman prince to bear this name, which, like such other names as Bāyazīd and Murād, originated in mystical circles in Asia Minor in the xivth century. According to the Byzantine sources, this Muṣṭafā is the same as the person called by the majority of the Turkish sources: Dözme Muṣṭafā, who came forward in 1419 as pretender to the Ottoman throne against Muḥammad …

Muṣṭafā IV

(607 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twenty-ninth sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, was a son of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I and was born on S̲h̲aʿbān 26, 1193 = Sept. 19,1778 (Meḥmed T̲h̲üreiyā, Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 81). When the anti-reform party, headed by the ḳāʾim-maḳām Mūsā Pas̲h̲a and the muftī, and supported by the Janissaries and the auxiliary troops of the Yamaḳs had dethroned Selīm III [q. v.] on May 29,1807, Muṣṭafā was proclaimed sulṭān. Immediately afterwards, the unpopular niẓām-i d̲j̲edīd corps was dissolved and Ḳabaḳd̲j̲i Og̲h̲lu, the leader of the Yamaḳs, was made commander of the Bosporus for…
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