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(3,034 words)

Author(s): Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] (ἀγορά; agorá) in a topographical sense is the district of the Greek polis ( Town / City) delineated as the political, religious, social and economic focus. Originally, agora was the assembly, derived from ἀγείρω ( ageírō; to assemble), of freemen in a community. The history of this people's assembly and its place of assembly is, to a high degree, concurrent with the development of the  polis itself. The community of citizens, characteristic of the polis, developed on the agora, and its architectural layout reflec…


(217 words)

Author(s): Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] In Greek ἀγγαρεία ( angareía), a word of Persian origin, which described a service obligation from the 3rd cent. BC, especially in association with the transport of persons and goods by order of the state [1.11]; both Herodotus (3,126,2; 8,98,2) and Xenophon (Cyr. 8,6,17) mention the courier services (ἀγγαρήιον; angarḗnion) of the Persians. The sources from the Principate [5.6 A. 25] describe making means of transportation available, in part for compensation fixed by the state (SB 1,39241; cf. angariare = to requisition: Dig. 49,18,4,1), with ἀγγαρεία or angaria (on…

Town, city

(4,219 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Definition 'Town' and 'city' in modern parlance have become general terms to describe settlements of a particular size, with a particular complement of buildings and administrative and legal structure. Owing, however, to the manifold forms assumed by towns and cities, we lack a specific, all-embracing definition: criteria such as a closed built environment, a highly evolved division of labour, and central administrative and economic functions for the surrounding territory, have p…


(370 words)

Author(s): Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Greek and Roman armies used tactical signals, Latin  signa (cf. Greek σημεῖα/ sēmeîa) for the transmission of orders in camp and on the battlefield. Vegetius lists three kinds of signal (Veg. Mil. 3,5,3; cf. Arr. Tact. 27): (a) signa vocalia, voice-signals: soldiers' passwords ( tessera) for guard duties and for battle; (b) signa semivocalia, acoustic signals with the aid of signaling instruments ( tuba, cornu, bucina: Musical instruments VI.): musical commands to engage the enemy, to halt, to pursue or retreat (Veg. Mil. 2,22…


(2,625 words)

Author(s): Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[English version] ἀγορά im top. Sinne ist der als hl. Bezirk abgegrenzte polit., religiöse, gesellschaftliche und wirtschaftliche Mittelpunkt der gr. Polis (Stadt). Urspr. war die von ἀγείρω (versammeln) abgeleitete A. die Versammlung der männlichen Freien eines Gemeinwesens. Die Gesch. dieser Volksversammlung und ihres Versammlungsplatzes ist in hohem Maße zugleich jene der Entwicklung der Polis. Die für letztere charakteristische Bürgergemeinde entfaltete sich auf der A., und deren architektonis…