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Minerals, non-metallic

(1,085 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Jan | Kirnbauer, Thomas
The early modern mining of stones and earths (Latin  lapides and terrae in the 1546 discussion of Agricola [1]) involved the extraction of various non-metallic mineral resources, mostly used as building materials. These included natural stone for above-ground construction and bridge building (including roofing, but also millstones, grindstones, whetstones, and boundary stones), solid rock and gravel for road construction, carbonate stone, gypsum, anhydrite, and trass as raw materials for quicklime, mortar, whit…
Date: 2020-04-06

Mineral deposits

(3,223 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Christoph | Kirnbauer, Thomas
1. Definition and classification Mineral deposits are concentrations of mineral resources (rocks, minerals) that can be exploited economically (Resources, use of). The term came into use in the 18th century [4] and was in common use in the 19th. Previously all the minerals found underground had been called fossils. Depending on their nature and use, mineral deposits can be classified as (1) metal ore (or simply ore) deposits, the basis of metal production; (2) deposits of energy resources (e.g. black coal, lignite, petroleu…
Date: 2020-04-06