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Myriandrus

(147 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Μυρίανδρος; Myríandros). Settlement on the shores of the Gulf of Issus (Str. 14,5,19). Its exact localization is not yet established, possibly 80 stades ( c. 15 km) south of Alexandria [3] (Stadiasmus maris magni 157), the location of the ruins of Adatepe [1. 363]. The place name is of Anatolian origin ( Myriandos; cf.  Hdt. 4,38), later Graecisized (M. = ‘Town of 1,000 men’). Xen. An. 1,4,6 described M. as a Phoenician  emporion (‘trading station’, cf also Scyl. 102). M. probably lo…

Maiocariri

(114 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] Fortified location in the hills on the road from Mardin to Amida (Diyarbakır). Amm. Marc. 18,6,6 describes the location of M. in a forested region with winegrowing and orchards. According to Amm. Marc. 18,10,1 Šābuhr moved before the siege of Amida in AD 359 from Horre (Horren) via M. to Carcha (Kerh). Not. Dign. Or. 36,36 names the Cohors XIV Valeria Zabdenorum as occupation force. The name M. means ‘cold water in Aramaic. M. can not be localized exactly yet, but should probably be searched for near modern Ceyhan. Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) Bibliography L. Dillemann,…

Caenae

(110 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Καιναί; Kainaí). Settlement on the western bank of the Tigris close to the confluence of the Lower Zab; according to Xen. An. 2,4,28 a large, flourishing polis; cf. also Κάναι in Steph. Byz.; its identity with the Neo-Assyrian Kannu near Assur is doubtful, see [1]. In the Bible it is attested as Kannē(h) (Ez 27,23) and located near Tekrit [2]. Its etymology is unclear; perhaps it is related to Aramaic gannā, ‘wall’. Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) Bibliography 1 F. R. Weissbach, s.v. Καιναί, RE 10, 1508 2 R. D. Barne…

Tigris

(422 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] (Sumerian Idigna, Assyrian/Babylonian Idiqlat, Greek Τίγρης/ Tígrēs (Hdt. 1,189; 1,193; 2,150; 5,52; 6,20), Latin Tigris (Plin. HN 6,129 f. et passim), Arabic Diǧla, Turkish Dicle), at about 1850 km the second longest river of the Near East. The Euphrates [2] and the T. enclose the 'land between two rivers' called Mesopotamia. In Antiquity unclear ideas on the sources of the T. circulated. Assyrian inscriptions at the source cave of the Sebene locate its origin there. Plin. HN 6,127 f., who cites the etymology from Iranian tigri-, 'arrow', mentions a partly su…

Mascas

(93 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] (Μάσκας; Máskas). Xen. An. 1,5,4 locates the River M. south of the confluence of the Chabora ( Ḫabur) and the Euphrates and describes it as encircling the city of Corsote in the desert. It may well have been only a canal. Etymologically, it is perhaps connected with the Akkadian mašqû, ‘watering hole/place’. There was a Neo-Assyrian town called Mašqite in the north of Anatolia. Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) Bibliography R. D. Barnett, Xenophon and the Wall of Media, in: JHS 73, 1963, 4f. F. H. Weissbach, s.v. M., RE 14, 2069f.

Murašû

(224 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] Founder of a Babylonian family enterprise, often characterised as a firm. M.'s activities began under Darius [1] I. Evidence is provided by more than 830 cuneiform tablets from an archive in Nippur, which are dated between 454 and 404 BC. Most of them concern the enterprises of Ellil-šum-iddin und Rīmūt-Inurta, son and grandson of M. The family was involved in agriculture in the region of Nippur, e.g., in tenancy and subletting of land plots, leasing, tax collection, short-term mo…

Euphrates

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] [1] Stoic philosopher from Syrian Tyre Stoic philosopher from Syrian Tyre (born c. AD 40). He married into the family of Pompeius Iulianus, moved to Rome and was perhaps under the patronage of the emperor. Under Hadrian he committed suicide in 118 BC. The skilful protreptic orator ( Protreptics) did not allow himself to be infected by the Cynic fashion and supported moderation and rationalism in philosophical as well as political matters. His resistance to Neo-Pythagorean and Chaldaean tenden…

Semipelagianism

(761 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) | Kessler, Andreas
[German version] A. Concept Semipelagianism is a modern term (probably first used toward the end of the 16th cent. [2]) for a movement in theological thought that emerged in the 5th/6th cents. in the monasteries of southern Gaul, rejecting the teachings of Augustinus (cf. [7]) on grace and predestination. The term Semipelagianism remains academically useful, if one takes account of the following reservations: 1) There is no evidence of direct historical links to the Pelagius [4] who was convicted in…

Corsote

(82 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Κορσωτή, Korsōtḗ). Xen. An. 1,5,4 mentions C. as a large city situated in the desert south of the confluence of the Chaboras ( Habur) and the Euphrates. He describes it as being surrounded by the river  Mascas, probably more of a canal. Attempts to locate it near Bāġūẓ or Hirbat ad-Dīnīya are dubious. Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) Bibliography R. D. Barnett, Xenophon and the Wall of Media, in: JHS 73, 1963, 3-5.

Caprus

(135 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
(Κάπρος; Kápros). [German version] [1] River is eastern Caria River in the upper catchment area of the  Maeander in eastern Caria, modern Başlı Çay; it passes  Laodicea [4] closely to the east (Plin. HN 5,105) and discharges perennially into the Lycus, which runs about 1.5 km below the town in a north-westerly direction towards the Maeander (Str. 12,8,16; Plin. HN 2,225). Coins of the town depict a river god with the C. legend. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography G. E. Bean, Kleinasien 3, 1974, 259, 263 Magie 2, 785; 986 Miller, 726 Ramsay 1, 35. [German version] [2] Eastern tributar…

Izala

(121 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] In Neo-Assyrian sources from the 9th cent. BC onwards, I. is a centre of viticulture, the mountainous area between  Ḥarran,  Amida (modern Diyarbakır) and Mardin in north-eastern Mesopotamia. In Babylonian the toponym is also still used later. Darius I defeated (Old Persian Izalā, Elamite Izzila) the Armenians in I. (TUAT 1, 433 § 29,53). In AD 359, the mons Izala (Amm. Marc. 18,6,12; 19,9,4) was the scene of Roman battles against the Persians. In Syrian and Byzantine texts (Bar Hebraeus; Theophylaktes Simocatta: Ἰζάλας/ Izáles) I. can also include the Mardin…

Geography

(2,061 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) | Talbert, Richard (Chapel Hill, NC)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt The oldest sources for the geography of Mesopotamia consist of topographical lists (3rd millennium BC), of which one lists a total of 289 eastern and central Mesopotamian places. Clay plates from the 3rd to the 1st millennium BC occasionally show schematised city maps with labels (Babylon, Nippur, Uruk, Sippar) as well as regional area maps (Nuzi, Tellō, Nippur, Euphratis region, Sippar). These were probably created in the context of land surveying. A world map exists which is unique in its central orientation towards Babylon ( c. 5th cent.…

Cossaei

(196 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] (Κοσσαῖοι; Kossaîoi). A mountain people of the Zagros that was divided into tribes, approximately in the area of modern  Luristan, cf. Latin Cossiaei (Plin. HN 6,134); Cossaei (Curt. 4,12,10). Kossaía as the name of a region is found in Diod. Sic. 17,111,5. The relationship to the Kíssioi and the Kissía region (Hdt. 5,49; 5,52; Diod. Sic.11,7,2) remains uncertain. The C. were probably identical to the Cassites ( Kaššu) whose clans infiltrated  Mesopotamia after the 17th cent. BC. Subsequently, a durable Cassitic dynasty, which retained certain Ca…

Nerabus

(117 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] (Νήραβος/ Nḗrabos). Town in Syria (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 2,341 Fr. 17), modern Nairab south of Aleppo, Arama ic nrb, Neo-Assyrian Nirabu/ Nērebu, part of the province of Arpad. During archaeological investigations two steles with Aramaic funereal inscriptions of priests of the moon god Šahr (moon deity) were uncovered, as well as Babylonian cuneiform texts ( c. 560-500 BC) which attest to the business of a local family that lived temporarily (in exile) in a town in Babylonia that was also called N. Not to be confused with this N. …

Arbela

(272 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] [1] City in eastern Assyria This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Xenophon | Zenobia | Commerce | Limes | Pompeius City in eastern Assyria on the road leading to the Iranian highlands; settled since the end of the 3rd millennium BC (Urbilum), Assyrian Arbail(u), Greek Ἄρβηλα ( Árbēla) and the Ἀρβηλῖτις ( Arbēlîtis) region (Ptol. 6,1, 2; Plin. HN 6, 41), today Erbīl. A. was the centre of a cult of Ištar and the seat of the governor in both Middle and New Assyria. The temple in A. was particularly favoured under …

Topazos

(80 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] (Τόπαζος; Tópazos). Island, of which Pliny gives a detailed account, allegedly the place of origin of the name of the precious stone topaz. According to Plin.  HN 37,24;108 it was 300 stadia from the Arabian coast in the Red Sea, and  in the language of the Trogodytae T. means 'seek', since the fog-enshrouded island often had to be looked for by seafarers. It appears as an Indian island in Steph. Byz. s.v. Τοπάζιος. Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)

Marde

(113 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] (Μάρδη/ Márdē, Μάρδις/ Márdis, Lat. Maride). Fortress on the southern edge of the Izala mountain range (Ṭūr Abdīn), modern Mardin. Apart from a dubious identification with the ancient Oriental settlement of Mardaman, there are no indications that M. was of major significance prior to late antiquity. In Amm. Marc. 19,9,4, M. is one of the castella praesidiaria against the Persians. Under Iustinianus (AD 527-565) M. was refortified (Procop. Aed. 2,4,14) and according to Byzantine, Syrian and Armenian sources, it continued to be an impor…

Ḥarran

(281 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Mesopotamia Settlement 40 km south-east of Edessa, old Oriental Ḫarrān(u), Greek Κάρραι; Kárrai, Latin Carrhae, Aramaic Ḥrn, modern Harran, important commercial centre and important cult centre of the moon god  Sin; documented since the 3rd millennium BC, Assyrian provincial capital and, from 611-610 BC, residence of the last Neo-Assyrian king; new temple construction under  Nabonid (finds of steles). In the biblical tradition, H. wa…

Nisibis

(786 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Xenophon | Zenobia | Commerce | India, trade with | Asia Minor | Limes | Pompeius | Rome (Νίσιβις/ Nísibis, Byz. Νισίβιν/ Nisíbin). Town in Mesopotamia, also Nesibis, Assyrian Naṣībīna, Arabian Naṣībīn, present-day Nusaibīn, probably ‘the pillars’ in Aramaic folk etymology. N. was situated in a strategically important position on the Ǧaġǧaġa river (Mygdonius), at the foot of the mountains of Mardin (Mons Izala, Ṭūr Abdīn). In Assyrian sources N. is mentioned f…

Nymphaeus

(63 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] (Νυμφαῖος/ Nymphaîos). Nowadays called Kahta Cayi, it is a tributary of the Euphrates in Commagene. The ancient name is known only through the citing of the name of the town, Arsameia on the N., on an inscription of Antiochus [2] I of Commagene found at Arsameia (now Eski Kâhta) [2]. Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) Bibliography F.K. Dörner, Arsameia am Nymphaios (IstForsch 23), 1963, 40.
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