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Prang Sabil

(895 words)

Author(s): Kern, R.A.
, the name in Malay of the d̲j̲ihād [ q.v.] in the East Indian archipelago; prang = war. The course of recent history has made it difficult for Muslims to fulfil their duties with respect to the d̲j̲ihād. The representatives of the law, however, still teach and the masses readily believe that arms should only be allowed to rest against the kāfir so long as any success must be despaired of. In a Muslim country under non-Muslim rule, as were the Netherlands East Indies under Dutch colonial rule, the teachers, however, preferred to be s…

Rapak

(206 words)

Author(s): Kern, R.A.
(Javanese; a. rafʿ ) is a technical term used among the Javanese, in this one case only, for the charge made by the wife, at the court for matters of religion, that the husband has not fulfilled the obligations which he took upon himself at the taʿlīḳ of ṭalāḳ or divorce [see Ṭalāḳ ]. These obligations are of a varied and changing nature. Among the conditions the following always occurs: “If the man has been absent a certain time on land or (longer) over seas” i.e. without having transmitted nafaḳa , i.e. payment for maintenance to his wife. A clause that is nev…

Pasè

(641 words)

Author(s): Kern, R.A.
, the name of a district on the north coast of Atjeh [ q.v.] in Sumatra, which according to the prevalent local view stretches from the D̲j̲ambō-Ajé river in the east to the other side of the Pasè river in the west. The whole area is divided up into a number of little states each with an ulèïbalang or chief. Pasè at one time was a kingdom known throughout eastern Asia. The north coast of Atjeh was in the middle ages on the trade route by sea from Hindustān to China. Islam followed this route and firmly established itself from India on this coast, the fir…

Puwasa

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
(Skr. upawāsa), in the East Indian Archipelago the name for the month of Ramaḍān and for fasting in this month or at other times. The Arabic names however are not unknown. Fasting is in Indonesia generally a favourite pious practice not only on the days prescribed or recommended by law but also as a means of attaining a desired end. The observation of the fast in Ramaḍān is here as elsewhere ¶ regarded as the most important of the pillars of Islām; here also we find the popular belief prevailing that it can atone for the sins of the whole year. Not all however cont…

Patani

(777 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
, an administrative district of Si am in the extreme south of the kingdom on the east coast of the peninsula of Malacca; it is bounded on the south by the Malay states of Kělantan and Kědah, both under British protection. The whole district is made up of seven Malay petty states, each with its own native chief who is assisted by a Siamese official. Malay forms of government are allowed to remain. In the capital of the same name resides the Siamese High Commissioner of the district. His advice has to be obeyed by the rulers of the states. The native inhabitants are Muslims. Friday and other mos…

Padri

(2,408 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
“Padries” or „Padaries”, also “Pedaries” is the name given in Dutch literature to the people who wished to carry through by force a reformation of Islām in the early decades of the xixth century in Minangkabau (Central Sumatra). In explanation of this expression it may be said that, according to one opinion, the word is connected with Pedir, a harbour on the north coast of Sumatra, while, according to another, it corresponds to the word padri (Port, padre) used in several Indonesian languages meaning “Christian clergyman”, whether Roman Catholic or Protestant. The first …

Pangulu

(1,628 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
(Jav.), panghulu (Sund.), pangòlò (Madur.), literally “headman, director” used in the east Indian Archipelago as the name for secular and religious chief administrators, in the islands of Java and Madura the name of a mosque official, namely the chief in his area. The official representatives of religion are organised there on the same scheme as the native administrative officials. Alongside of the regent, the highest ¶ administrative official, is the pangulu of the regency, alongside of the head of the district is the pangulu of the district, called the pangulu naib or briefly naib, an…

Ahli-Waris

(57 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
, in general use among the Muḥammadan peoples of Indonesia with the meaning of Arabic wārit̲h̲. The word is taken from the Persian usage and has reached the East Indian archipelago via India. (R. A. Kern) Bibliography Ph. S. van Ronkel, Over de herkomst van enkele Arabische bastaardwoorden in het Maleisch, in T.B.G., xlvii. 189 sqq.

Prang Sabil

(888 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
, the name of the d̲j̲ihād [q. v.] in the East Indian archipelago; prang (Indon.) = war. The course of history has made it impossible for Muslims to fulfil their duties with respect to the d̲j̲ihād. The representatives of the law however still teach and the masses readily believe that arms should only be allowed to rest against the kāfir so long as any success must be despaired of. In a Muḥammadan country under non-Muslim rule like the Netherlands Indies the teachers however prefer to be silent. At most they say that under the prevailing conditions ther…

Rapak

(203 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
(Jav.; Ar. rafʿ) is a technical term used among the Javanese, in this one case only, for the charge made by the wife, at the court for matters of religion, that the husband has not fulfilled the obligations which he took upon himself at the taʿlīḳ of ṭalāḳ [see ṭalāḳ]. These obligations are of a varied and changing nature. Among the conditions the following always occurs: “If the man has been absent a certain time on land or (longer) over seas” i.e. without having transmitted nafaḳa [q. v.] to his wife. A clause that is never omitted is the following: “If the wife is not content…

Pasè

(658 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
, the name of a district on the north coast of Atjeh (Sumatra) which according to the prevalent native view stretches from the Ḏj̲ambō-Ajé-river in the east to the other side of the Pasè river in the west. The whole area is divided up into a number of little states each with an ulèïbalang or chief. Pasè at one time was a kingdom known throughout eastern Asia. The north coast of Atjeh was in the middle ages on the trade route by sea from Hindustan to China. Islām followed this route and firmly established itself from India on this coast, the first poi…

Adat Law

(1,436 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
In the languages of the Muslim peoples of the Malay Archipelago adat (sometimes with dialectical modifications), derived from the Arabic ʿāda, is the word in general use for “custom, practice, use and wont”. The application of the word is extended to all that a community or an individual has become accustomed to as well as to all human impulses and inclinations; even an animal has its adat. In the little community within which the Indonesian usually spends his life, harmony is only secured if every one of the members observes the traditional customs or those th…

Wakap

(221 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
(Mal., Jav., the form, or with slight modifications, taken by waḳf [q. v.] among the Muslim peoples of the east Indian Archipelago). The institution is well known; estates made wakap are however of isolated occurrence only: they always serve religious purposes. The prescriptions of the law are complied with. Clashing with native law results in there being no wakap where single individuals have no private rights (Minangkabau, Central Sumatra) and wherever the individual right to land is restricted by a higher law, no pieces …

Pinang

(521 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
or Pulau Pinang, an island on the western shore of the Malay Peninsula, lying in latitude 5° 24′ N. and longitude 100° 21′ E. The area is 276 km.2; it is separated from the mainland by a channel from 3 to 16 km. broad. The town of Pinang is built on the northeastern promontory, 4 km. off the shore of the mainland. The official names, Prince of Wales’ island and Georgetown, never became popular and exist only in official documents. — The island was acquired in 1786 for the East India Company against a yearly payment from th…

Pasantren

(1,955 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
Javenese “ santri-place”, seminary for students of theology ( santri) on the islands of Java and Madura, Madur. panjantren, Sund. usually pondok, i.e. the lodgings of the students of the school (“to go to the pondok” = to attend a pasantren). — Elementary education i. e. reciting the Ḳurʾān and the elements of a knowledge of ceremonial law is given in the East Indian Archipelago wherever there are Muḥammadans by teachers, who confine themselves to these subjects, in their own ¶ houses. In the larger villages and towns of Java and Madura there are also teachers who collect p…

Ḏj̲akat

(696 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
, the most usual corruption of the Arabic zakāt [q. v.] in the East Indian Archipelago, e. g. in Malay, Javanese and other languages. — The d̲j̲akat has taken a place alongside of the traditional local taxes as a voluntary offering; an exception is found in a part of West lava, where before the Dutch authorities intervened, it had been incorporated in the native system of taxation. In practice there is only the d̲j̲akat of the fruits of the field: rice is important, maize not so much; only he who is so inclined carries out this duty and need not observe exactly…

Prang Sabil

(908 words)

Author(s): Kern, R.A.
, désignation du d̲j̲ihād [ q.v.] en malais dans l’Archipel des Indes Orientales où prang = guerre. Le cours récent de l’histoire n’a guère permis aux Musulmans de remplir leurs devoirs en ce qui concerne le d̲j̲ihād. Mais les représentants de la loi continuent à enseigner, et la foule croit volontiers qu’on ne doit s’abstenir d’user des armes contre les kāfirs que tant qu’on doit douter du succès. Dans un pays musulman sous une domination non-musulmane comme les Indes Orientales sous le régime colonial hollandais les docteurs de la loi préféraient pour …

Rapak

(212 words)

Author(s): Kern, R. A.
(javanais, de l’ar. rafʿ) est, chez les Javanais, un terme technique employé uniquement pour la déclaration faite par la femme mariée par-devant le tribunal des affaires religieuses, accusant son mari de n’avoir pas rempli les obligations auxquelles il s’est soumis à l’occasion du taʿlīḳ du ṭalāḳ (divorce)[voir Ṭalāḳ]. Ces obligations sont de nature très variée et très changeante. Parmi les conditions, figure toujours celle-ci: «Quand le mari est resté un temps déterminé absent sur terre ou (plus longtemps) sur mer», c’est-à-dire sans avoir remis à sa femme la nafaḳa (pension alime…

Pasè

(656 words)

Author(s): Kern, R.A.
, nom d’un région de la côte d’Atjeh [ q. v.] (Sumatra), qui, d’après la conception courante des autochtones, s’étend du fleuve Ḏj̲ambō-Ajé à l’Est jusqu’au delà du fleuve Pasè à l’Ouest. Toute cette région est divisée en plusieurs petits États qui sont chacun placés sous l’autorité d’un chef appelé uléïbalang. Jadis Pasè était un royaume connu dans toute l’Asie orientale. La côte Nord d’Atjeh était au Moyen Âge sur la route maritime et commerciale de l’Hindoustan vers la Chine. L’Islam suivit cette voie et c’est sur cette côte que, parti de l’H…

Masd̲j̲id

(86,325 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, Johs. | Kern, R. A. | Diez, Ernst
(a.), Mosque. I. (Johs. Pedersen) A.Origin. B.Foundation of mosques after Muḥammad’s death. C.The mosque as a religious centre. D. The building and its equipment. E.The mosque as a state institution. F.The mosque as a school. G. Administration. H. The staff. II. (R. A. Kern) The mosquë in the Dutch Indies. III. (E. Diez) Architecture. A. Origin of the Mosque. The word is found in Aramaic, the earliest occurrence being in the Jewish Elephantine Papyri (ed. Sachau, pl. 32, ed. Ungnad, N°. 33; Cowley, Aramaic Papyri of the fifth Cent. B. C, N°. 44), also frequently in Nabataean ( Corp. Inscr. S…
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