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Samarqand

(72 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Pre-Mongol Samarqand lay to the north of the present city and the walls of city and citadel can still be traced. Timurid and later Samarqand developed outside the southern gate of the old city with the centre in the bazaars between there and the registan square. The map is based on that in L. Golombek and H. Wilber, The Timurid architecture of Iran and Turan (Princeton, 1988). Hugh Kennedy

Iran under the Mongols, 7th-8th/13th-14th Centuries

(35 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
This map was compiled by A. Stewart, using, among others sources TAVO B VIII. 15 The Ilkhanid Empire (D. Krawulsky). Hugh Kennedy

Indonesia and Java

(164 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Islam reached the northern tip of Sumatra, the region of Atjen (Atchin), through the medium of merchants from Gujarat in the seventh/thirteenth century, but only spread widely through the Indonesian archipelago some two hundred years later, just before the arrival of the Portuguese. At that time the islands were very vaguely known to European cartographers, who had only al-Idrīsī and Polo to help them; and until well into the sixteenth century the Portuguese revealed the outlines only of certain…

Anatolia

(249 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
These four maps are the work of Dr Michael Hendy extensively revised by H. Kennedy with reference to TAVO BVI 8 (T. Riplinger) and BVII 18 (C. Neumann) and other recent publications. 46a illustrates the lines of communication that supported the broad natural frontier of the Taurus and Anti-Taurus Mountains and enabled the Byzantine Empire to withstand the pressure from Arab Syria for several centuries. 46b shows the completely changed state of affairs after the crucial battle of Manzikert (463/ 1071), following which the Turkish tribes were able to outflank the Anti-Taurus …

Harāt circa 850 / 1447

(36 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
The map shows the rectangular Timurid city and the outlying buildings and gardens; based on TAVO BVII 14.3 (T. Allen and H. Gaube). Hugh Kennedy

Arabia according to Ptolemy (circa 150 A.D.)

(555 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Arabia according to Ptolemy — his sixth Asian sheet — is reduced from the original compilation by A. Sprenger ( Die Alte Geographie Arabiens, Bern 1875). This version reproduces precisely the original of Ptolemy, unlike the many manuscript and printed versions which are usually roughly copied at several removes from an original which may itself have been inaccurately plotted. Ptolemy himself appreciated the danger and intended that his work be handed down in the form of lists of co-ordinates which could be re-plotted with precision at any time. It will be evident from a comparison …

The Muslim World circa 1111/1700

(261 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Islam arose near the centre of the Old World, and this series is intended to illustrate its spread and the connections, linguistic, economic and cultural, between the regions where it prevailed and the further parts of Europe, Asia and Africa. Map 4 on the linguistic divisions is based on map 4 in the First Edition. Map 5 is an attempt to show the main environmental regains and mineral resources of the classical Islamic world. I have only included such features as crude oil, iron etc. in places …

Anadolu and Rumeli in the later 11th / 17th Century

(122 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
relies on three main sources, to which Dr. Colin Heywood has kindly drawn attention: K. Kemal Ozergin, ‘‘Rumeli Kadılıklarında 1078 Dūzenlemesi’’, in Ismail Hakkɩ Uzunçarsɩlīya Armaǧan (Tūrk Tarih Kurumu Yayɩnlarɩ VII Dizi Se. 70) (Ankara 1976). This is a gazeteer of Rumeli dated 1018/ 1667-8. Riza Bozkurt, Osmanlɩ Imparatorluğunda Kollar, Ulak ve Iase Menzilleri (Ankara 1966) — an edition of several itineraries in Anatolia and Rumelia, dated between A.D. 1698 and 1756. Faik Resit Unat, “Ahmet III. devrinde yapılmıs bir Onasya haritası, H. 1139/D. 1726”, Tarih Vesikalarɩ I. 2, 19…

List of Collaborators on the First Edition

(129 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Nicholas N. Ambraseys, London (Imperial Coll.) Charles F. Beckingham, London (S.O.A.S.) A. Frederick L. Beeston, Oxford C. Edmund Bosworth, Manchester Claude Cahen, Savigny-sur-Orge Simon Digby, Oxford Andrew Forbes, Leeds Lucien Golvin, Aix-en-Provence H. J. de Graaf, Wassenaar Nigel St. J. Groom, London Michael Hendy, Birmingham Colin Heywood, London (S.O.A.S.) Richard J. Holmes ϯ, Aden/Harpenden Peter M. Holt, London (S.O.A.S.) J. F. P. Hopkins, Cambridge Colin Imber, Manchester Arthur K. Irvine, London (S.O.A.S.) Mohammad A. Al-Jerash, Jidda Jacques Jomier, Cairo Paul…

Ottoman Naval Power in the 10th / 16th Century

(33 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
is based on a study by Colin Imber of Ottoman naval archives. Hugh Kennedy

The Muslim World circa 700/1300

(261 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Islam arose near the centre of the Old World, and this series is intended to illustrate its spread and the connections, linguistic, economic and cultural, between the regions where it prevailed and the further parts of Europe, Asia and Africa. Map 4 on the linguistic divisions is based on map 4 in the First Edition. Map 5 is an attempt to show the main environmental regains and mineral resources of the classical Islamic world. I have only included such features as crude oil, iron etc. in places …

H

(3,968 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Ḥ. al-Ward al-Andalus – 54 D4 al-Ḥabash The Indian Ocean circa 390 / 1000 and the Turks and Portuguese in the Indian Ocean 10th / 16th Centuries – 60 A3 al-Habash Galla The Muslim World circa 905/1500 – 12 C4 Ḥabb Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt in Islamic Times – 18 B3 Ḥabbān Pre-Islamic Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt – 16a C2;  Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt in Islamic Times – 18 C2 Haciköy Anadolu and Rumeli in the later 11th / 17th Century – 49 F2;  Anadolu and Rumeli in the later 13th / 19th Century – 50/51 F2 Ḥācīoǧli-bāzāri Anadolu and Rumeli in the later 11th / 17th Century – 49 D2 al-Ḥadath The Fertile Crescent Under…

The Arabian Peninsula in Islamic Times

(29 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
is similarly based on Cornu with additions from TAVO B VII 1 noted above. Hugh Kennedy

Z

(1,435 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Zaaram regia Arabia according to Ptolemy (circa 150 A.D.) – 15a B3 Zāb al-Andalus – 53b E3;  Al-Maghrib in the Age of the Almoravids and Almohads, 5th-7th / 11th-13th Centuries – 57a E1 al-Zāb al-Kabīr R. The Fertile Crescent Under the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid Caliphs – 20/21 E2;  The Fertile Crescent in the Age of the Crusades circa 534/1140 – 22/23 E2;  The Fertile Crescent in the 11th/17th and 12th/18th Centuries – 24/25 E2 al-Zāb al-Ṣaghīr R. The Fertile Crescent Under the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid Caliphs – 20/21 E2;  The Fertile Crescent in the Age of the Crusades circa 534/1140 – 22/23 E2;  The Fe…

S

(10,894 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
S. Jorge da Mina Elmina (Sp.) North Africa and the Sudan circa 1008 / 1600 – 58 B4 S. Vincenti al-Andalus – 53b F2 Ṣā Mediaeval Islamic Egypt – 29 B2;  Al-Maghrib in the Age of the Almoravids and Almohads, 5th-7th / 11th-13th Centuries – 57a C2 Saʾala Two Arabic world maps: The World According to Al-Idrīsī 549/1154 - The World According to al-Sharfī 986/1579 – 1a J7 Sabac Anadolu and Rumeli in the later 13th / 19th Century – 50/51 B1 Sabaei Arabia according to Ptolemy (circa 150 A.D.) – 15a D4;  15b E4 Sabbatha/Shabwa Arabia according to Ptolemy (circa 150 A.D.) – 15a E4;  15b E4 Sabība Al-Maghrib in …

B

(9,832 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Baʿalbakk The Fertile Crescent Under the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid Caliphs – 20/21 C3;  The Fertile Crescent in the Age of the Crusades circa 534/1140 – 22/23 C3;  The Fertile Crescent in the 11th/17th and 12th/18th Centuries – 24/25 C3 Bāb al-Abwāb Early Muslim Conquests – 7 C1;  The Umayyad Caliphate circa 132/750 – 8 C2 Bāb al-Abwāb/Derbent Caucasus (al-Qabq) in the Early Middle Ages – 44 E1 Bāb al-Lān (Darial Pass) Caucasus (al-Qabq) in the Early Middle Ages – 44 C1;  Caucasus in the 12th-13th / 18th-19th Centuries – 45 C1 Bāb al-Mandab Two Arabic world maps: The World According to Al-…

W

(1,670 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
W. Adhana R. Pre-Islamic Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt – 16a B2;  Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt in Islamic Times – 18 B2 W. Ahwar R. Pre-Islamic Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt – 16a C3;  Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt in Islamic Times – 18 C3 W. ʿAmd R. Pre-Islamic Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt – 16a C2;  Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt in Islamic Times – 18 C2 W. Amwah R. Pre-Islamic Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt – 16a B1;  Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt in Islamic Times – 18 B1 W. Ana R. al-Andalus – 54 D3;  55 D3 W. Banā R. Pre-Islamic Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt – 16a B3;  Yaman and the Ḥaḍramawt in Islamic Times – 18 B3 W. Bayḥān R. Pre-Islamic Yaman and the…

Transoxania in the 4th-5th / 10th-11th Centuries and The Khwārazm Shāhs and Ghūrids

(46 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
These two maps are essentially those made by C. E. Bosworth for the First Edition with some updating. Hugh Kennedy

Ḥalab (Aleppo) circa 905/1500

(42 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
The map is based on the maps in the two classic account of the city, D. Sauvaget, Alep (Beyrouth, 1941) and H. Gaube and E. Wirth’s map TAVO B VII 14.2. Hugh Kennedy

F

(2,016 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, Hugh
Fachi North Africa and the Sudan circa 1008 / 1600 – 58 D3 Fadak Arabia in the Time of the Ḥijra (622 A.D.) – 16b D2;  The Arabian Peninsula in Islamic Times – 19 D2 Fadʿan The Fertile Crescent in the 11th/17th and 12th/18th Centuries – 24/25 D2;  24/25 E4 Fahraj Iran under the Umayyads and ʿAbbāsids – 32/33 D4;  Iran in the 4th-5th / 10th-11th Centuries – 34/35 C3;  34/35 D4 Faḥṣ al-Ballūṭ al-Andalus – 54 D3;  55 D3 Fajr Arabia in the Time of the Ḥijra (622 A.D.) – 16b C2 Fakiya Anadolu and Rumeli in the later 13th / 19th Century – 50/51 D2 Fāknūr The Indian Ocean circa 390 / 1000 and the Turks and …
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