Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Kehne, Peter (Hannover)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Kehne, Peter (Hannover)" )' returned 34 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Obsequium

(199 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] In the social and political fabric of Roman society obsequium generally referred to a duty of support for prominent persons [3. 128ff.], in a military sense it referred to a soldier's obedience and in Roman private law to the legal duty of the libertus (Freedmen) towards his patronus [1. 140]. In relation to the imperium Romanum, obsequium also referred to the loyalty of a province (Tac. Hist. 4,71,2; 74,4; Tac. Ann. 4,72,1; 15,21,1) as well as the subordination - the goal of foreign policy - of tribes living on the edges of the Empi…

Marcomer

(85 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] Frankish dux, later rex, broke through the Limes in AD 388 and probably destroyed the punitive expedition army led by Quintinus. In 389 he negotiated with Valentinianus II and provided hostages. In 391/2, M. avoided an attack by Arbogastes and in 392 entered into a foedus with Eugenius [1] (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9). In 395 he presumably fled to Stilicho or was arrested by him and was interned in Etruria (Claud. Carm. 8; 18; 21). PLRE 1, 557. Kehne, Peter (Hannover)

Indutiae

(170 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] As opposed to a mere pause in a battle ( quies a proeliis), indutiae in martial and international law means an agreed truce ( cessatio pugnae pacticia: Gell. NA 1,25,8) or the agreement on which it is based ( pactio indutiarum). The historicity of indutiae valid beyond the year of office of the commander and ending a war for from 2 to 100 years, according to annalistic tradition like peace treaties, is contentious [2. 43f.]. The Roman international law which developed recognizes only the contractually agreed, deferred inter…

Legatio

(723 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] The activity of a legatus . 1) In international law, a government-ordered, occasional delegation of usually three or more legati - as messengers or provided with full authority - who acted as official representatives of Rome and reported to the Senate ( legationem renuntiare: Liv. 39,33,1). Legationes presented, for example, the demand for satisfaction ( rerum repetitio) required for a bellum iustum ( International law), the declaration of war ( indictio belli), instructions to socii , explored the ground, arbitrated and concluded trea…

Treaties, upholding of

(219 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] To the Greeks, the upholding of treaties on an international level was one of the agraphoi nomoi , and for the Romans one of the foundations of the ius gentium (here understood in the sense of 'ius comune' as applicable to all peoples; ius [A 2]). As the international treaty itself was under the sacred protection of the deity invoked for the oath, Zeus and Jupiter respectively in Greece and Rome generally watched over the observance of treaties in their capacities as protectors of (contractual) oaths and of the pistis [D]/ fides [II] [1; 3; 4. 39, 53]. This guarantee of…

Malaric

(51 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] Frank, defended in AD 355 as tribunus gentilium of the scholae Palatinae the magister peditum Silvanus who was accused of planning to usurp power (see Mallobaudes). In 363 M. declined appointment as magister equitum per Gallias (Amm. Marc. 15,5,6; 25,8,11; 10,6). PLRE 1, 538. Kehne, Peter (Hannover)

Obses

(153 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] An obses (Pl. obsides, 'hostage') was taken in consequence of an agreement or for the purpose of  reprisal. In the first case, the sacrosanct 'treaty hostage' provided security for legationes , negotiations and all forms of interstatal agreements, e.g. war treaties ( indutiae ; pactio ). In case of treaties ( deditio ; foedus ) for the purpose of pax , the obses also guaranteed the performance of specific provisions. In peace he guaranteed good political behaviour. The number and exchange of hostages, as well as the period for which they wer…

Pactio

(252 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] In the Roman 'law of nations' p. generally meant (to be precise pactum < pacisci; synonymous  conventio: [1. 136f.]) interstatal agreements without reference to the current legal format (Gell. 1,25,15; Gai. Inst. 3,94; Dig. 49,15,12, compare 2,14,5; Liv. 34,57,7), in the plural it also referred to their content. Given that fides [II.] publica operated in them, the observance of which signified the compliance with the ius gentium (s. ius A. 2.) as a norm of the 'law of nations' ([1. 36]; [2. 6; 11f.]; [4. 75]), the maxim: pacta servanda sunt (agreements should be ob…

Mallobaudes

(120 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] As comes domesticorum et rex Francorum M. defeated the Alemanni at Argentaria (Horburg/Alsace) in AD 378. He probably took part in Gratianus' [2] expedition on the right bank of the Rhine [1. 600] in order to subjugate them (Amm. Marc. 31,10,6-17). In Franken he later killed the invading king of the Alemanni Macrianus [1] (Amm. Marc. 30,3,7). Identification with the Frankish tribunus armaturarum who in 354 AD interrogated Constantius [5] Gallus (Amm. Marc. 14,11,21) and who, together with Malaric, spoke in defence of Silvanus in 355 AD (Amm.…

Laeti

(200 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] Etymologically (Etruscan, Celtic, Germanic, Latin?) disputed technical term for descendants of prisoners or dediticii , predominantly of Germanic origin (Amm. Marc. 20,8,13), who settled in Gaul under state supervision on barren, remote estates ( terrae laeticae: Cod. Theod. 13,11,10). Laeti had limited rights, were bound to the soil, obliged to do military service, but were not ‘soldier-farmers’ [2]. The Notitia dignitatum records, under the magister peditum in Gallia, twelve praefecti laetorum (Not. Dign. Occ. 42,33-44) with details of nationality…

Transfuga

(192 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] Unlike a mere desertor , i.e. a citizen evading military service or a soldier not on leave, whose desertion was severely punished by Rome, a transfuga was a Roman citizen (or subject of the Empire), who as a soldier or civilian (Dig. 48,4,2,3) committed treason ( perduellio ), and thus a crime against the polity ( crimen publicum) by defecting to the enemy (Erl. Dig. 49,15,5), which Rome punished according to the law of war (War, law of) through the magistrates by coercitio or in criminal law as a crimen maiestatis ( Maiestas ). A transfuga was considered pro hoste ( Hostis

Legatus

(455 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] (‘sent on the basis of a law’ [6. 11]). 1) Envoy in international relations of Rome, outside of Italy with the functions of fetiales within the framework of a legatio [3. 1133-1135; 2. vol. 2, 675-690]. Benefits included, among others, apparitores [1. 110ff.], travel funds ( viaticum) and the right to free transportation ( evectio), for which the golden ring handed over by the Senate was the legitimation (Plin. HN 33,11) [2. vol. 1, 301]. On the basis of ius gentium ( International Law) he was held sanctus inviolatusque (‘sacred and inviolable’; Caes. B Gall. 3,9,3; …

Laeti

(170 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] Etymologisch (etr., kelt., german., lat.?) strittiger t.t. für Nachkommen von in Gallien unter staatl. Aufsicht auf verödeten, grenzfernen Ländereien ( terrae laeticae: Cod. Theod. 13,11,10) angesiedelten Gefangenen bzw. dediticii vorwiegend german. Herkunft (Amm. 20,8,13). L. hatten beschränkte Rechte, waren an die Scholle gebunden, kriegsdienstpflichtig, aber keine “Wehrbauern” [2]. Die Notitia dignitatum verzeichnet unter dem magister peditum in Gallien zwölf praefecti laetorum (Not. dign. occ. 42,33-44) mit Angaben zu Nationalität und…

Legatio

(574 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] Tätigkeit eines legatus . 1) Im völkerrechtl. Bereich die staatl. verfügte, gelegentliche Delegation von meist drei oder mehr legati, die - als Boten oder mit Handlungsvollmacht ausgestattet - als offizielle Vertreter Roms agierten und dem Senat darüber berichteten ( legationem renuntiare: Liv. 39,33,1). Legationes überbrachten u.a. die für ein bellum iustum (Völkerrecht) notwendige Genugtuungsforderung ( rerum repetitio), die Kriegserklärung ( indictio belli), Anweisungen an socii , sondierten, schlichteten und schlossen Ve…

Malarich

(47 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] Franke, trat 355 n.Chr. als tribunus gentilium der scholae Palatinae für den der Usurpationsplanung bezichtigten magister peditum Silvanus ein (s. auch Mallobaudes). 363 lehnte M. die Ernennung zum magister equitum per Gallias ab (Amm. 15,5,6; 25,8,11; 10,6). PLRE 1, 538. Kehne, Peter (Hannover)

Obses

(120 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] Ein o. (Pl. obsides, “Geisel”) wurde aufgrund einer Übereinkunft gestellt oder zu Repressalzwecken genommen. Im ersten Fall sicherte die sakrosankte “Vertragsgeisel” legationes , Verhandlungen und alle Arten zwischenstaatlicher Abkommen, z.B. Kriegsverträge ( indutiae ; pactio ), und bürgte bei den pax bewirkenden Abkommen ( deditio ; foedus ) auch für die Erfüllung einzelner Bedingungen. Im Frieden garantierte er polit. Wohlverhalten. Anzahl, Austausch und Vergeiselungsdauer waren Ermessenssache. Römische …

Indutiae

(144 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] Im Unterschied zur bloßen Kampfpause ( quies a proeliis) meint i. im Kriegs- und Völkerrecht den vereinbarten Waffenstillstand ( cessatio pugnae pacticia: Gell. 1,25,8) bzw. das diesem zugrundeliegende Abkommen ( pactio indutiarum). Die Historizität von über das Amtsjahr des Feldherrn hinaus gültigen i., die gemäß annalistischer Tradition wie Friedensverträge den Krieg für 2 bis 100 Jahre beendeten, ist umstritten [2. 43f.]. Das entwickelte röm. Völkerrecht kennt nur die “vertraglich vereinbarte, befristete Unterbrechung…

Legatus

(367 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] (“aufgrund eines Gesetzes abgesandt” [6. 11]). 1) Gesandter im völkerrechtl. Verkehr Roms, der außerhalb Italiens Funktionen der fetiales im Rahmen einer legatio übernahm [3. 1133-1135; 2. Bd. 2, 675-690]. Er verfügte u.a. über apparitores [1. 110ff.], Reisegeld ( viaticum) und Recht auf freie Beförderung ( evectio), wozu der vom Senat ausgehändigte goldene Ring (Plin. nat. 33,11) legitimierte [2. Bd. 1, 301]. Gemäß des ius gentium (Völkerrecht) war er sanctus inviolatusque (“heilig und unverletzlich”; Caes. Gall. 3,9,3; Liv. 30,25,10); unges…

Marcomer

(75 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] Fränk. dux, später rex, durchbrach 388 n.Chr. den Limes und vernichtete wohl das von Quintinus geführte Strafexpeditionsheer. Er verhandelte 389 mit Valentinianus II. und stellte Geiseln. 391/2 wich M. dem Angriff des Arbogastes aus und schloß 392 mit Eugenius [1] ein foedus (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9). Vermutl. 395 zu Stilicho geflüchtet oder von ihm verhaftet, wurde er in Etrurien interniert (Claud. carm. 8; 18; 21). PLRE 1, 557. Kehne, Peter (Hannover)

Mallobaudes

(93 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[English version] schlug als comes domesticorum et rex Francorum 378 n.Chr. bei Argentaria (Horburg/Elsaß) die Alamannen und nahm wohl an Gratianus' [2] rechtsrhein. Expedition [1. 600] zu deren Unterwerfung teil (Amm. 31,10,6-17). Im Frankenland tötete er später den eingefallenen Alamannenkönig Macrianus [1] (Amm. 30,3,7). Die Identität mit dem fränk. tribunus armaturarum, der 354 Constantius [5] Gallus verhörte (Amm. 14,11,21) und 355 mit Malarich für Silvanus eintrat (Amm. 15,5,6), ist umstritten [2]. Kehne, Peter (Hannover) Bibliography 1 P. Kehne, s.v. Gratian, RG…
▲   Back to top   ▲