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Orthagoras

(445 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Ὀρθαγόρας/ Orthagóras). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sicyon, 6th cent. BC O. of Sicyon is said to have established the tyrannís there around 650 BC. The ruling dynasty thus established was called the 'Orthagorids' after him. An anonymous ‘history of tyranny (FGrH 105 F 2) preserved on papyrus, and probably deriving from Ephorus, reports that O. had first distinguished himself as a border guard on the frontier with a neighbouring city, and later rose to become commander of the watch and polémarchos . Whether he had the support of the hoplítai for his seizure o…

Patala

(116 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander | Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | Hellenistic states | India, trade with | Mauryas (τὰ Πάταλα; tà Pátala). City and military base of Alexander [4] the Great at the mouth of the Indus, probably Pātāla in Old Indian (Arr. Anab. 5,4,1; Arr. Ind. 2,6; Str. 15,1,33 among others). The name was also used for the entire region and later also for the island of Patalene (Ptol. 7,1,55), but the city is never mentioned again. In P.'s place, Barabara became the …

Oxydracae

(220 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ὀξυδράκαι; Oxydrákai). Indian ethnic group in the Punjab, organized as an 'aristocratic republic'; together with the Malli, subjugated by Alexander [4] the Great in ferocious battles. The name has not been passed down to us in a uniform manner: aside from Oxydrákai in Arr. Anab. 5,22; 6,11 und from time to time, they are called Sydrákai in Str. 15,1,8, Diod. Sic. 17,98 and Arr. Ind. 4, Sudracae in Curt. 9,4,15, Sydraci in Plin. HN 6,25,92, Sugambri in Justin. 12,9,3, and Oxidragae in the Epitome Mettensis 78. In ancient Indian lists of Punjab peoples, those …

Aornus

(146 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] City in Bactria A city in Bactria, named only by Arr. Anab. 3,29,1, apart from Bactra (today Balch) the greatest city of this land, and probably identical with the present-day Tashkurgan [1]. In the castle of A., Alexander left behind a garrison in 329 BC. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography 1 Atlas of the World II, Pakistan, Kashmir, Afghanistan, 1959, pl. 31. [German version] [2] Mountain fortress near the Indus Mountain fortress near the Indus, allegedly conquered by Hercules and then by Alexander 328 BC (Arr. Anab. 4,28,1; Ind. 5,10; A…

Antimachus

(718 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
(Ἀντίμαχος; Antímachos). [German version] [1] Trojan, opponent of Antenor Trojan, opponent of  Antenor. When, before the war, Menelaus and Odysseus demanded the return of Helen in Troy, he advised, contrary to custom and tradition, killing the envoys (Hom. Il. 3,205; 11,138). Later, bribed by Paris, he prevented the handing over of Helen, then under consideration by the Trojans (Hom. Il. 11,123 ff.). His three sons were killed by the Greeks (Hom. Il. 12,188). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Two Indo-Greek kings in the 2nd cent. BC Two Indo-Greek kings in the 2nd c…

Nagara

(280 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] City in southern Arabia (Νάγαρα μητρόπολις/ Nágara mētrópolis, Ptol.6,7,37; Nagara, Amm. Marc. 23,47; πόλις Νεγράνων/ pólis Negránōn, Str. 16,4,24). Urban centre in ancient southern Arabia, modern Naǧrān, located in the wadi of the same name. N.'s importance was due to its geographical location at the crossing of two caravan routes from the Hadramaut to the Mediterranean over the Ḥiǧāẓ and into Iraq over the Yamama. It was conquered by Aelius Gallus in 24 BC (Plin. HN 6,160), but retained its …

Nandas

(138 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Indian dynasty in Magadha (approx. modern Bihār) on the Ganges, toppled by Chandragupta Maurya (Mauryas) late in the 4th cent. BC. In the Alexander histories, Indian allies told of the great military power of the Nandas who may thus have contributed to the mutiny on the Hyphasis. A legendary tale of the end of the Nandas is found in Indian sources and in Justin (15,4,16 according to Pomp. Trog.; [1]). Though different in many details, all sources agree on the low origins and unpopularity of the Nandas (including Curt. 9,2,6f.). India Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliograph…

Sandracottus

(181 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Arr. Anab. 5,6,2: Σανδράκοττος/ Sandrákottos, Str. 15,1,36: Σανδρόκοττος/ Sandrókottos, Plut. Alexander 62: Ἀνδράκοττος/ Andrákottos, Just. Epit. 15,4: Sandracottus, Old Indo-Iranian Tschandragupta). Indian king ( c. 320-298 BC) of the Mauryan Dynasty, king of the Prasii and founder of the Mauryan Empire (Mauryas with map). In Indian sources, his life is connected with legends, and parts of a S. legend are also found in Justin (15,4). He concluded a peace with Seleucus following a conflict of which no d…

Polyxenus

(397 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Πολύξενος/ Polýxenos, 'he who has many guests'). [German version] [1] Sobriquet for Hades Poetic epithet for the god of the underworld (Hades, Pluto): Aesch. Supp. 156 f. etc. (cf. Polydectes [2]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Mythical king of Elis Mythical king of Elis; holds in safekeeping the cattle stolen from Electryon; Amphitryon releases them and receives Electryon's daughter Alcmene in return (Apollod. 2,55 f.; Schol. Lycoph. 932). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Mythical king of Elis Mythical king of Elis, grandson of Augeias; suitor of Helen…

Nahapāna

(101 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Indian king of the Kṣatrapa dynasty, who ruled in and around Gujarāt in the 1st or 2nd cent. AD and was then deposed by the Sātavāhana king Gautamīputra Sātakarṇi. He has often been identified with the king Manbanes(-nus?) of Barygaza in Peripl. m.r. 41 (most recently in [1], but the question remains uncertain, latest critique in [2]). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 J. Cribb, Numismatic Evidence for the Date of the Periplus, in: D.W. McDowall (ed.), Indian Numismatics, History, Art and Culture, 1992, 131-145 2 G. Fussman, Le Périple et l'histoire poli…

Dachinabades

(59 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Region of India to the south of  Barygaza, with the cities of Paithana and Tagara. Mentioned only in Peripl. m.r. 50f., where δάχανος has also been correctly explained as the Indian word for south, Old Indian dakṣiṇa. Probably following Middle Indian Dakkhiṇābadha (Old Indian dakṣiṇāpatha) as a term for the Indian peninsula. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Imaon

(16 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Greek name of the Himalaya, old Indian Himavān,  Emodus. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Prasii

(123 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Πράσιοι/ Prásioi; Lat. Prasii). People in eastern India on the lower reaches of the Ganges in modern Bihār, Old Indian p rāchya, 'the Easterners' (e.g. in the Mahābhārata). Situated in their territory wasPalimbothra, the capital of the kingdom of Maurya (Mauryas). The first information about the P. comes from the Alexander historians (Diod. Sic. 17,93, Curt. 9,2,3); from the time of Megasthenes (in Str. 15,1,36), they were considered to be the most powerful people in India. Their territory was known as Πρασιακή/ Prasiakḗ (Ael. NA 17,39, Ptol. 7,1,53). Many pas…

Larice

(61 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Indian region in Gujarāt, bordering on Indo-Scythia in the west, with the capital Ozene (Ptol. 7,1,62f., see also Peripl. m.r. 41 (Ariake) and Ptol. 7,1,4f.). The name is obviously related to Old Indian Lāṭa, South Gujarāt. In this country the famous harbour town of Barygaza was situated. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Wecker, s.v. L., RE 12, 837f.

Heliocles

(97 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (called Díkaios, Middle Indian Heliyakriya). Greek king of Bactria in the 2nd cent. BC, attested only by his coins. According to Tarn [1] son of Eucratides I and the last Greek king of Bactria, overthrown by nomads in 141/128. Narain [2] and Bopearachchi [3] differentiate between two H.s on numismatic grounds. The second was supposedly a son of the first and ruled in the south of the Hindu Kush. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 W. W. Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India, 21951 2 A. K. Narain, The Indo-Greeks, 1958 3 Bopearachchi, 74-76, 222-225 (H. I.), 9…

Sambus

(143 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] Tributary of the Ganges (Σάμβος/ Sámbos). Tributary of the Ganges (Arr. Ind. 4,4: Megasthenes), possibly identical to the Sarabus (Ptol. 7,1,29; 2,13) corresponding to the Sarayū (Agoranis). Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) [German version] [2] Indian king, 4th cent. BC (Σάμβος/ Sámbos in Arr. Anab. 6,16,3 f., Σάβος/ Sábos in Diod. Sic. 17,102,6 f. and Str. 15,1,33, Σάββας/ Sábbas in Plut. Alexander 64, Sambus in Curt. 9,8,13 and 9,8,17, Ambus in Just. Epit. 12,10, etc.). Indian king; his kingdom, with its capital at Sindimana, lay in the mountain …

Indus

(317 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἰνδός; Indós). [German version] [1] The Indus The River Indus. Probably from Old Indian Sindhu (for the etymology cf.  India); the Indian name is better attested as Sindus in Plin. HN 6,71, than Σίνθος; Sínthos in Peripl. m.r. 38; 40 and as Σίνδων/Σίνθων; Síndōn/ Sínthōn in Ptol. 7,1,2 (here a branch of the delta). According to general Greek opinion (with the exception of  Megasthenes), the I. is the largest river in India, known to the Greeks since the end of the 6th cent. BC (Scylax in Hdt. 4,44). The lower reaches for instance downstr…

Philoxenus

(1,694 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Montanari, Ornella (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Φιλόξενος; Philóxenos). [German version] [1] Name of several officers under Alexander the Great Several officers with the name P. are mentioned in the sources about Alexander  [4] the Great. They cannot always be distinguished with certainty. One P. was appointed by Alexander in 331 BC (incorrect [1]) ' to collect tribute on this side of the Taurus'(i.e. in Asia Minor) (Arr. An. 3,6,4). This cannot be correct. Arrian must, as often, have expressed himself imprecisely, as this duty had already been entrusted to somebody else. It can also hardly be th…

Yamunā

(80 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] The largest tributary of the Ganges; Iomanes in Arr. Ind. 8,5 (Ἰωμάνης/ Iōmánēs, Var. Ἰωβάρης/ Iōbárēs) and Plin. HN 6,21,63; 6,22,69; 6,23,73; Διαμούνας/ Diamoúnas in Ptol. 7,1,29 (probably from Prakrit Jamunā), perhaps identical to the Οἰδάνης/ Oidánēs of Artemidorus (in Str. 15,1,72). The river rises in the western Himalayas and joins with the Ganges at Allahabad. Between the Y. in the west and the Ganges in the east is the Doab, the ancient heartland of Aryan India. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Nallura

(45 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ναλλοῦρα; Nalloûra). City in the interior of Limyrice in Southern India (Ptol. 7.1.85). There are several cities in Southern India with the Dravidian name Nallūr; exact identification does not appear possible. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Stein, s.v. Ναλλοῦρα, RE 16, 1608.
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