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Chinese Communist Party

(3,970 words)

Author(s): Kampen, Thomas
1. History The Chinese Communist Party (CCP, Zhongguo gongchandang) was founded in 1921 and has been the ruling party of China since October 1, 1949. Accordingly the party's history is usually divided into two periods. A sudde…

Long March

(1,006 words)

Author(s): Kampen, Thomas
Superior in numbers and weaponry, the Guomindang (GMD) troops and their warlord allies managed to conquer the Communist bases in central and southern China (CCP-controlled areas) during 1934/35. The retreat of the Red Army developed into "long marches" ( changzheng), which had originally neither been planned nor called as such. All in all, there were mainly four armies involved which successively set out from their respective base areas: First Army (October 1934, Central Soviet area Jiangxi); 25th Army (November 1934, southern Henan); Fourth Army (spring 1935, northeastern Sichuan); Second Army (November 1935, border region of Hubei-Hunan). The First and Fourth Armies each counted over 80,000 soldiers at the beginning of their marches, the Secon…