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Formularies

(336 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
In chancelleries and other facilities concerned with the authoring of official documents, collections of model documents were used, often consisting of copies of genuine documents. These served as edi…
Date: 2016-08-09

Scholastic Economics after Thomas Aquinas

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
It appears to be one of the paradoxes of medieval history that the order of Francis of Assisi, of all groups, also made innovative contributions toward the justification of commercial activities and t…
Date: 2016-10-18

Economic Ethics – Patristic Foundations

(984 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
Augustine's sermon on Luke 16:9 ( Sermo 113) constitutes a fundamental text of patristic social and economic ethics. Augustine's commentary portrays the possession and acquisition of earthly goods as a negl…
Date: 2016-10-18

Economic Life

(472 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
Until the advent of industrialization, economic activities were primarily restricted to agrarian production. In addition to decisive turning points such as the emergence and subsequent crisis of manor…
Date: 2016-08-09

Economic Ethics and Economic Theory

(558 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
In the Middle Ages, as in antiquity, the concept of oeconomia was related to the order and administration of the household, and thus to an elementary form of social life. It is indicative that neither a general…
Date: 2016-08-09

Trade in the Regions of Europe

(5,642 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
Trade in the Frankish Realm The intensity and the organization of trade in the centuries that followed the collapse of the Roman Empire are the subject of a long scholarly debate that has predominantly rev…
Date: 2016-08-09

Thomas Aquinas' Theory of the Just Price

(1,021 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
More space must be allowed the theory of the just price according to Thomas Aquinas and his school, in view of its significance both for discussions at the time and for modern scholarship. The general…
Date: 2016-08-09

The Canonistic Debates of the 12th to 13th Centuries

(984 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
Early medieval legislation in respect of usury already tended in the direction of stricter criminalization of commercial practices and gains, and this development reached its apogee with Gratian's Decretum (→canon law), at a tim…
Date: 2016-10-18

Economic Theories of Scholasticism

(577 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
In accordance with their systematic character, the summary commentaries of those 13th- and 14th-century theologians in particular who had connections with Paris (→Scholasticism) took up the initiative…
Date: 2016-08-09

Merchants, Bankers, and Entrepreneurs

(2,176 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
The Early Middle Ages The term "commercial revolution" (R. Lopez) has become established for the time between the mid-11th and 13th centuries, since in this period the economic, social, and political coor…
Date: 2016-08-09

Official Documents

(1,131 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
As written witnesses to matters of a legal nature, official documents constitute both a principal historical source and a profound cultural phenomenon of the Middle Ages. In principle, an official doc…
Date: 2016-08-09

Economy

(989 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
The theory and practice of economics in the Middle Ages developed on the foundation of and in reaction to understandings owed to classical antiquity. Until the Late Middle Ages, economic doctrine was influenced by the idea of the oikos ("…
Date: 2016-08-09

Central European Regions

(3,992 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
At the time of its greatest expansion and internal consolidation in Europe, the Carolingian Empire (→Carolingians) occupied a central area of dominion in both political and geographical terms. In the …
Date: 2016-08-09

Legal/Administrative Texts

(364 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
The employment of literacy and the development of an ordered world of writing in the legal and administrative realm in the Middle Ages is an inheritance from the Greco-Roman world (→the Christianizati…
Date: 2016-08-09

Trade Organization and Mercantile Law

(815 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
In the centuries that followed upon the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the highly sophisticated organization of trade that had existed in ancient times gradually disintegrated. While Byzantium …
Date: 2016-08-09

The Concept of Usury Prior to Scholasticism

(796 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
The central building blocks for the formulation of the Church's basic stance toward economic questions were meanwhile subsumed under the varieties and definitions of usury ( usura). The early medieval prohibition of usury and …
Date: 2016-08-09

Trade

(929 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
Medieval trade was in many respects a continuation of the economic practices of the Roman Empire. In spite of the Arab expansion, the primary economic zone of the Latin West still lay in the Mediterra…
Date: 2016-08-09

Business and Administration Texts

(588 words)

Author(s): Jörg Oberste
"Business texts" (Geschäftsschriftgut), sometimes used as an umbrella term (e.g. by A. von Brandt) and sometimes as a complementary term (e.g. by H. Patze), are differentiated from diplomatic document…
Date: 2016-08-09